Digital Technologies-Outdoor Learning (Week 11)

In our last class we focused on using digital technologies in outdoor learning. I was really curious about this class as through my experience I never had the opportunity to use digital technology outside-it was mainly just running about or games. I also noticed that this was the case during my placement. Outdoor learning has … Continue reading “Digital Technologies-Outdoor Learning (Week 11)”

In our last class we focused on using digital technologies in outdoor learning. I was really curious about this class as through my experience I never had the opportunity to use digital technology outside-it was mainly just running about or games. I also noticed that this was the case during my placement.

Outdoor learning has a lot of potential and can be easily accessed throughout primary all the way to teenage years (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010). It offers a much more creative and interesting way to learn but also is a lot more fun for the children as they might not necessarily see it as learning but instead as playing. It is also an opportunity to do a lot of team work activities which would further improve the children’s communication skills but also for them to be more comfortable working with each other  (Education Scotland,2010)

‘The core values of Curriculum for Excellence resonate with long-standing key concepts of outdoor learning. Challenge, enjoyment, relevance, depth, development of the whole person and an adventurous approach to learning are at the core of outdoor pedagogy’ (Education Scotland,2010)

Outdoor learning can;

  1. Develop thinking skills and can aid children in making connections between the different areas of the curriculum
  2. It helps the child with personal development such as communication, problem solving skills and team working skills.
  3. It is also really healthy as the children are able to get exercise and it promotes different long term sports or activities.
  4. it improves children’s ability to be safe outside and know how to act properly to not harm themselves
  5. It can also be used by everyone, for example children with ASN can still do outdoor learning which has the potential to really improve their self worth.
  6. The children can also develop their science and biology is aspects such as nature, animals and plants.
  7. With outdoor learning you can take the children out on field trips that are low cost but really beneficial for the kids.

‘Outdoor learning experiences are often remembered for a lifetime. Integrating learning and outdoor experiences, whether through play in the immediate grounds or adventures further afield, provides relevance and depth to the curriculum in ways that are difficult to achieve indoors.’ (Education Scotland,2010)

Today we used QR scanning on the iPad and we went outside to look for the QR codes. This was a really fun and exciting task even though most of us are adults. I personally really enjoyed this task and think the children would love it so would like to try this out during my next year placement. I noticed that it was a lot easier to remember the facts given and the answers to it which can be applied to a large variety of topics. When we came back inside we created out own QR questionnaire in groups. We based ours on health and aimed it for younger children. We also took pictures throughout the outdoor activity and created a pic collage to summarise out time out. Before this we created a sample pic collage to see how to use it. I think this was a great activity both as a learner and potentially using this in the classroom with children.

References-

Education Scotland (2010) Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning.

Learning and Teaching Scotland (2010) Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning.

Enhancing Outdoor Learning (20/03/18)

Sadly due to illness today, I unfortunately missed our last input of digital technologies based on enhancing outdoor learning. However, I have taken the time to study and read over the powerpoint used within the lecture to help improve my understanding of the importance of taking a child’s learning out of just the classroom and … Continue reading Enhancing Outdoor Learning (20/03/18)

Sadly due to illness today, I unfortunately missed our last input of digital technologies based on enhancing outdoor learning. However, I have taken the time to study and read over the powerpoint used within the lecture to help improve my understanding of the importance of taking a child’s learning out of just the classroom and adapt it to the outside world. From the powerpoint I learned that according to Education Scotland (2010), “Integrating learning and outdoor experiences, whether through play in the immediate grounds or adventures further afield, provides relevance and depth to the curriculum in ways that are difficult to achieve indoors”. This shows that rather than just having learning experiences within the classroom, they can use these skills at home with their parents/carers to solidify understanding and knowledge. They can also use these skills and manipulate them to have the ability to use them in the future.

The idea of outdoor learning can be adapted to almost any area within the curriculum to help achieve various Es and Os. For example a variety of science outcomes can be achieved if they were to study biodiversity and nature in the world around them. Children could possibly achieve the outcomes “I have observed living things in the environment over time and am becoming aware of how they depend on each other (SCN 0-01a)” and “I can distinguish between living and non-living things. I can sort living things into groups and explain my decisions (SCN 1-01a)”. Basing activities outside however can be adapted to any area of the curriculum, and this is just one very specific example.

Their task for today was to explore the QR codes and to use an app with a scanner on it to help them find clues and crack the puzzle. After observing completed work and talking to peers who took part, it seemed a very fun challenge which could also be used with primary children to help them improve teamwork and communication skills in working with others.

Overall, this input seemed a very interesting one which I am so gutted to have missed. This however gives me the drive and opportunity to explore this idea further in my own time, and hopefully continue this type of learning whilst on placement or indeed when I am a teacher in the future.

References

Learning and Teaching Scotland (2010) Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning.

Curriculum for Excellence

Digital Technology Week 11- 20/03/2018 (Outdoor Learning- QR Codes)

“Outdoor learning experiences are often remembered for a lifetime. Integrating learning and outdoor experiences, whether through play in the immediate grounds or adventures further afield, provides relevance and depth to the curriculum in ways that are difficult to achieve indoors.” (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010.) Children retaining information by remembering a fun, engaging lesson is […]

“Outdoor learning experiences are often remembered for a lifetime. Integrating learning and outdoor experiences, whether through play in the immediate grounds or adventures further afield, provides relevance and depth to the curriculum in ways that are difficult to achieve indoors.” (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010.) Children retaining information by remembering a fun, engaging lesson is one of the main reasons I have found digital technologies to be such a useful tool for teachers today. Digital technology when used correctly often allows children to immerse themselves into an enjoyable learning experience which is far more likely to stay with them as it has engaged them and they have had fun throughout the process and so the thought of combining both the excitement of learning outdoors with the opportunities digital technology brings, I was looking forward to this lesson.

During this lesson we particularly focused on the use of QR codes in outdoor learning whilst the PicCollage app was also used to further enhance this lesson so we could document our journey. In order to introduce us to the way in which QR codes could be used both educationally through a median of fun a QR code hunt had been set up for our class in the university grounds. We gathered ourselves into teams each with two iPads, one to scan the QR codes which would reveal a question we were to answer before finding the next clue and the other to take pictures along the way to document our hunt. Before starting our hunt we were given some time to familiarise ourselves with the PicCollage app by taking various pictures to summarise an aspect of university life. The app itself is simple and easy to use, with many options available to create a unique collage including altering pictures, changing background styles, adding text and cartoon images.

Once we had created our collage we were ready to go on our hunt. We discussed the importance of talking through the rules and boundaries and reasons for these with children whilst still inside the classroom to ensure you have their full attention, everyone knows the rules, what areas to stay within and therefore are safe when outside the classroom. We all ran around the university grounds searching for various QR codes alongside a picture of where our next clue could be found. Once we used the iPad to scan the QR code a question popped up on the screen of our iPad with two possible answers. Next to the each answer was a letter, after we had found all six hidden QR codes we could have an anagram of six scrambled letters which we had to solve. From the perspective of a learner, being part of a group of students ranging from 18-40 there was so much excitement, fun and enjoyment, as well as a lot of competitiveness to get back first and so I find it exciting thinking about one day running a similar activity with a class  .“The core values of Curriculum for Excellence resonate with long-standing key concepts of outdoor learning. Challenge, enjoyment, relevance, depth, development of the whole person and an adventurous approach to learning are at the core of outdoor pedagogy…” (Education Scotland, 2010.). This activity integrates so many and if done well, all, of the core values of the Curriculum for Excellence as well as so many more important skills and values including team work, communication and allowing children to explore, play and be adventurous in the outdoors.

The questions created could be about any topic, the children could run around searching for QR codes which then asked a mathematics question, or questions relating to a topic they’re studying. The opportunities are endless.

  • Opportunities to carry out different activities and roles in a variety of settings have enabled me to identify my achievements, skills and areas for development. This will help me to prepare for the next stage in my life and learning.- HWB 2-19a
  • Within and beyond my place of learning I am enjoying daily opportunities to participate in physical activities and sport, making use of available indoor and outdoor space. –HWB 1-25
  • “I can explore and experiment with digital technologies and can use what I learn to support and enhance my learning in different contexts.- TCH 1-01a

(Scottish Government, 2008).

I have chosen outcomes from various levels to show that this activity can be used with a wide range of children (and adults!). Depending on the topic chosen for the questions, whether the children work alone or in groups, the way in which children have to make their way to the clues (run, hop, skip, jump) many more experiences and outcomes across various areas for the curriculum could also be covered during a similar activity.

Upon returning from our hunt we were given the opportunity to create our own QR codes using the QR reader app. This could be on any topic we wanted and use any format we found in the app. I created an Olympic hunt based upon a possible topic classroom topic. I had initially hoped for one of the clues to pop up a video of ice hockey on the children’s iPad and subsequently a question would pop up asking which team are the current Olympic Champions at this sport. However, I found that I could not do both a video and a question using the same QR code which is an extra feature I think could add further depth to this activity. However, after discussing this with Graham he suggested that it was possible to have one QR code as a video and the next asking questions about the video and so a similar objective was still achieved but in a slightly different way. Below are the QR codes I generated using my questions based on the Olympics. There is also a question sheet which the children would have to fill in and similar to the hunt we went on the letters next to each answer would form an anagram they would have to solve at the end of the quiz.

 

 

 

During this lesson I found it interesting how many different aspects of not only the Curriculum for Excellence but also GIRFEC (Getting it Right for Every Child) outdoor learning covers. very much at the centre of GIRFEC is the SHANARRI wheel, featuring eight well-being indicators; Safe, Healthy, Active, Nurture, Achieving, Responsible, Respect and Included (Scottish Government, 2012.). In pairs, we chose one of the eight well-being indicators and discussed how we thought outdoor learning  achieved this indicator. During our discussion we chose to focus on respect. As a teacher you are giving children the respect as you trust that they can go outside and follow your rules to remain safe. By showing the children this respect by trusting them this is also allowing the children to be responsible whilst feeling safe and so covers more than one of the well-being indicators. Some of the other ideas from around the classroom included respect for their teacher, the environment and the people around them as well as being active and healthy.

 

I really enjoyed todays lesson. I think children should be encouraged to learn through adventure and playing outside where possible. Children being active and ‘getting some fresh air’ is vital for not only their own health and wellbeing but also, many of my most vivid memories from my own childhood are playing and having adventures outside and so I would love to bring similar, life-long experiences to children in the future. Living in Scotland the weather is not always predictable however so long as the weather is safe clothes can be dried and clothing can be changed. In Scotland, especially in Ayrshire we are so fortunate to live in such a beautiful place with so many beaches and open green spaces that children should be given opportunities to take advantage of all of this outdoor space to play and learn. The apps we were introduced to today we both simple to use and created a wonderful learning experience which hopefully children would enjoy and remember.

 

Final Lesson

                                                                                                           Final Lesson(Pixabay.com, 2018.)

Today was our final lesson in our Digital Technologies module. I have thoroughly enjoyed this module and my confidence in using Digital Technologies had gone from strength to strength each week during this semester. During our very first dt (digital technologies lesson) we filled out a form assessing our own confidences and abilities in various dt areas. Prior to this course, with exception of the ipad, most of my initial markings were either at 1 or 0 (Not very confident/ not much prior knowledge). However, since finishing the course all of these areas have improved and I rated myself either 4 or 5 in each area, which can be seen by the markings near the outside of the circle.

I now feel so much more confident about using dt both inside an outside of the classroom. I have loved discovering new, innovative and engaging ways in which digital technologies can be used, in particular the inter-dsicplinary learning opportunities they can provide and I look forward to finding ways of integrating digital technologies into my own lesson planning order to enhance my lessons and make them experiences to remember.

I am excited to take everything I have learned forward into my teaching career and build upon some incredible ideas which we have been provided with, created and discussed during this module. I will continue to research digital technology in the classroom and follow which games become popular, such as minecraft, and think how I could create learning opportunities or use these games as a stimulus for learning.

(Pixabay.com, 2018)

 

References

›Education Scotland (2010) Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning.

›Learning and Teaching Scotland (2010) Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning.

Pixabay.com. (2018). Free Images – Pixabay. [Online] Available at: https://pixabay.com [Accessed: 29 Mar. 2018].

Scottish Government (2008) The Curriculum for Excellence [Online] Available at: http://www.education.gov.scot/Documents/all-experiences-and-outcomes.pdf [Accessed: 22 March 2018].

Scottish Government (2012) A Guide to Getting it Right for Every Child [Online] http://www.gov.scot/resource/0042/00423979.pdf [Accessed: 24 March 2018]

›SHANARRI Wheel image taken from: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0043/00438639.jpg

 

 

 

 

Outdoor Learning: QR Codes- Week 11 Digital Technology

Today was our last class for this module and I had been speaking to others about my growing anticipation to find a connection between digital technologies and outdoor learning. When I was at school, there was never any digital technology involved in outdoor play, just simply a pair of wellies and some waterproof clothes. I […]

Today was our last class for this module and I had been speaking to others about my growing anticipation to find a connection between digital technologies and outdoor learning. When I was at school, there was never any digital technology involved in outdoor play, just simply a pair of wellies and some waterproof clothes.

I was very excited to know what the learning intentions would be for the day and this is when we were introduced to ‘Quick Response Codes’ (QR Codes). A QR code is a type of bar code that is made up of black modules on a white background, unlike a normal barcode that has 20 alphanumeric character limit, a QR code can hold thousands of characters. QR codes were created in 1994 and are used mainly on smartphones and tablets however you may see them on signs, business cards and when sharing multimedia content such as an ebook (techopedia) and by downloading a QR reader App will allow you to scan any QR codes.

The QR codes that we used today were set up in the style of a treasure hunt and this is when I had the chance to see the connections between digital technology and outdoor learning. Our lecturer had placed many QR codes around the gardens of the university campus, we then had to seek out and scan each QR code using our mobile devices, which were iPads. Each QR code held a question with a multiple choice answer, when all the questions were answered correctly there was a jumbled up word to guess, then lastly we had to scan the final QR code and the team first to complete this were the winners. When we met back at the classroom, we created a ‘Pic Collage’ on an iPad, which was fairly simple and would be great tool for children in a classroom as the app allows for creativity and design.

Being outside was brilliant and memorable which the Scottish Government believe is part of the outdoor learning experience. I myself certainly remember my own childhood school trips and outings, as they were so much fun. I can only imagine how excited primary school children would be if they had the same oppertunity.

As a student teacher, it is important for me to experience as many different approaches to teaching as I can, as not all children will and can learn in a set typical environment. In order for this to happen we had an in-depth class discussion about  ‘GIRFEC’ (Getting it right for every child).  GIRFEC is a policy that is used in Scotland to ensure the wellbeing of our children and by using this we can put the differentiated needs of children and young people first (Scottish Government). GIRFEC is broken down into 8 areas of the SHANARRI Wellbeing Wheel which we related today to outdoor learning:

  1. Active – Getting outside and exercising.
  2. Respected – Looking after the environment.
  3. Responsible – Behaving in different surroundings.
  4. Included – Opportunities for children to shine.
  5. Safe – Developing risk management skills.
  6. Healthy – Promotes a healthy lifestyle.
  7. Achieving – Personal development such as problem solving.
  8. Nurtured – Building positive relationships.

I had my own oppertunity to create a lesson using the iPad and QR codes. The lesson was based on modern languages and for this I created a Spanish quiz. The quiz worked very similar to the treasure hunt and I can clearly see how easily adaptable lessons like these can be. While planning my lesson, I was aware of advice from my lecturer to ‘bundle’ CFE experiences and outcomes. I found that with activities like this bundling was happening by it’s self as ‘Digital Technology’ has so many positive outcomes, such as health and wellbeing, technology, numeracy and literacy etc.

Below are the areas of the CFE I have chosen for my lesson:

MLAN 2-11c I experiment with new language, working out the meaning of words and phrases using vocabulary I have learned so far.

TCH 2-04a I explore and experiment with the features and functions of computer technology and I can use what I learn to support and enhance my learning in different contexts.

HWB 2-11a I make full use of and value the opportunities I am given to improve and manage my learning, in turn, I can help to encourage learning and confidence in others.

As you can see there is a wide range of experiences and outcomes, this has been the case throughout the digital technology module.

I mentioned at the beginning of this blog, that today was our last class, so I would like to conclude that I am so grateful for what this module has taught me. It has really opened my eyes to the world of technology and it’s many uses within education.

During this module, our class had opportunities to work in groups, this has meant that we have been communicating and collaborating throughout the module. Having the oppertunity to experience this, has helped us to understand what it may feel like, feelings such as confidence barriers and communication difficulties that some children may experience.

Our class lecturer has repeatedly explained to us how important it is to make things relevant, as it captures and holds a learners attention. I have experienced this for myself during my short time at university and college last year and I will ensure that relevance is something that I will take with me into the classroom as a future teacher.

The module has been so beneficial to me as my confidence in technology has increased, I know this because of the questionnaire I completed at the beginning and at the end of the module. This has shown a great increase in my confidence and knowledge. I will most definitely be getting involved with technologies in the future, my aim is to continue to build on my knowledge and also my confidence, this will benefit me as a student and as a teacher.

References

  • Scottish Government (2008) The Curriculum for Excellence [Online] http://www.education.gov.scot/Documents/all-experiences-and-outcomes.pdf [Accessed 27th March 2018].
  • Scottish Government (2010) The Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning [Online] https://education.gov.scot/Documents/cfe-through-outdoor-learning.pdf [Accessed 27th March 2018].
  • Scottish Government (2017) What is GIRFEC? [Online] http://www.gov.scot/Topics/People/Young-People/gettingitright/what-is-girfec [Accessed 27th March 2018].
  • Techopedia [Online] https://www.techopedia.com/definition/2915/quick-response-code-qr-code [Accessed 27th March 2018].

 

Digital Technologies- Games-Based Learning 6/3/17

This week’s Digital Technologies lesson focused on Games-based learning. Unfortunately, I was unable to attend the lesson due to weather conditions. However, to ensure I caught up with the learning […]

This week’s Digital Technologies lesson focused on Games-based learning. Unfortunately, I was unable to attend the lesson due to weather conditions. However, to ensure I caught up with the learning I had missed, I reviewed the PowerPoint and conversed with my peers who attended the lesson.   Today’s digital technologies lesson focused on Games based learning and the benefits of introducing games as an educational aid into the classroom to enhance children’s learning. Games based learning is the use of gaming for educational learning to increase learner’s enjoyment and engagement.

After talking with my peers, they informed me that today’s lesson involved the class working in groups to construct a mind map based on why they feel that games-based learning is an effective tool in education. This made me think of my own thoughts of why games-based learning is an effective tool in education. My main thoughts were that games-based learning would undoubtedly be a fun, engaging and interactive tool to aid children with their learning. The use of games in learning would also reinforce the connection of home learning with classroom learning by using games they would typically use in their homes such as Minecraft and the Nintendo Wii.  Despite my knowledge of these benefits I felt that there were many more than the ones I had previously listed. Therefore, to expand my knowledge on the benefits and impact of games-based learning in the classroom, I began to review the PowerPoint presentation and examine the opinion of experts.

The Higher Education Academy detailed that theorists Jean Piaget and Leonard Vygotsky believed that play is a vital element of cognitive development from an individuals birth to adulthood while stating that the introduction of computing and gaming in the 90s created new opportunities for play (Higher Education Academy Website). As well as this games-based learning increase learners motivation to learn while reinforcing prior knowledge and aiding them to recall information. Additionally, games-based learning can prove to be an effective aid for children with additional support needs who tend to struggle with sitting at a desk and writing. As well as supporting children with ASN games-based learning can also be an aid for children of all ages, Porter supports this view by stating “The digital environment provides a unique opportunity to empower people of all ages” (Porter, 2004, p.35).

Despite games-based learning typically being used as a reward for quick finishing at the end of the lesson, there are many ways that games-based learning can be used to fit a wide range of curriculum outcomes. As part of the lesson, we were challenged to think of lesson plans that would integrate Mario Kart into a variety of different curriculum lessons and outcomes:

For example, a possible literacy lesson could include learners writing a journal entry from the perception of an audience member watching the race. Showcasing their ability to use a variety of adjectives and descriptive words to describe the setting and atmosphere. “I enjoy creating texts of my choice and I regularly select subject, purpose, format and resources to suit the needs of my audience.” LIT 1-20a / LIT 2-20a

For a numeracy lesson we could use the games-based learning of Mario Kart to educate the children on money. By giving each child a set budget, they can analyse what race cars and characters they could buy for that price. I can manage money, compare costs from different retailers, and determine what I can afford to buy.’ MNU 2-09a

For a technology lesson, the learners could draw their favourite characters from Mario Kart and use iStop Motion to create a story using the characters. ‘I can explore and experiment with digital technologies and can use what I learn to support and enhance my learning in different contexts.’ TCH 1-01a

This technology lesson could lead to an expressive arts lesson. After the children have created a story using iStop Motion using their favourite Mario Kart characters, they could then act out their stories using costumes to become their characters. ‘I have experienced the energy and excitement of presenting/performing for audiences and being part of an audience for other people’s presentations/performances.’ EXA 0-01a / EXA 1-01a / EXA 2-01a

For a health and wellbeing lesson, learners could use cardboard boxes to make themselves into race cars from Mario Kart and practice the rules of road safety with their peers. ‘I know and can demonstrate how to travel safely.’  HWB 0-18a / HWB 1-18a / HWB 2-18a

After reviewing the many ways learning through games such as Mario Kart can be fitted into various curriculum outcomes, I feel as a student teacher it is vital that I aim to integrate games-based learning into as many class lessons as I can because they have proven, from the benefits listed above, to be an effective and engaging tool for young learners.

Overall, despite missing todays lesson I feel I am now more knowledgeable of the impact and importance of integrating its use into class lessons and the many ways games-based learning can be used to fit curriculum outcomes. I feel I am now confident after reviewing todays lesson that I could execute an engaging and effective lesson that integrates the use of games-based learning into a curriculum lesson.

 

References:

Porter, B. (2004) Digi Tales: The Art of Telling Digital Stories. United States: Bernajean Porter Publication.

Higher Education Academy (2017). Gamification and Games-Based Learning. [Online]. Available: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/knowledge-hub/gamification-and-games-based-learning . [Accessed: 6th May 2017]

Digital Technologies Week 9 (Games-Based Learning) 6/3/18

Although the initial plan of engaging with Nintendo games throughout this lesson did not follow through, our session was still fully oriented around games-based learning and the benefits of teaching in this style for both pupils and teachers. Digital Games-based Learning is described as being, “the integration of gaming into learning experiences to increase engagement […]

Although the initial plan of engaging with Nintendo games throughout this lesson did not follow through, our session was still fully oriented around games-based learning and the benefits of teaching in this style for both pupils and teachers. Digital Games-based Learning is described as being, “the integration of gaming into learning experiences to increase engagement and motivation” (Higher Education Academy website). This particular lesson began with us being asked to create a mind-map in groups based on our initial understanding of the benefits of games-based learning. After discussing the topic further, we were to go back and add any further knowledge we had gained to compare. We also learned how games-based learning can cover the SHANARI outcomes: safe, healthy, achieving, nurtured, active, respected and included.

Due to this lesson, I learned that games-based learning increases motivation in pupils, grabs their attention, improves their ability to recall the information they were taught in this way and reinforces knowledge for pupils in a stress-free and pleasurable manner. I learned that games-based learning can be used as a stimulus and used as a beginning point for other activities or it can be used to teach content and be used to illustrate content and materials. It has the potential to also be used to teach social skills improving their understanding of how best to communicate with their peers under certain circumstances or it can be used to allow pupils to create games of their very own.

I agree with the statements that games-based learning is stress-free and pleasurable for the learners and that it increases motivation. I agree with these as when we were asked to create our own Mario Kart character, I was apprehensive at the beginning due to drawing not being a strong skill of mine, however when I recognised that it was all for fun, I felt relaxed and was able to see the enjoyment in the task.

Not only did we learn about the benefits of combining games with learning, we were also informed of the potential challenges we may face as student teachers. One of the main hurdles faced by teachers is deciding on a game that is suitable and fits in with the class aims. We were informed of ways of evaluating whether the games is appropriate: is it likely to engage pupils? Does it promote problem solving and collaborative learning? Can the game be used to develop specific curriculum content? Other challenges to consider are if the resources and budget you have as a teacher are going to be enough to integrate games into the classroom and if you will be able to assess your pupils appropriately using the game you are considering.

A final challenge faced is lack of confidence in teachers. Due to teachers being nervous about using games in the classroom, many pupils miss out on this beneficial opportunity. “Game-based learning has had a ‘difficult history’ with teachers who may have felt threatened by children becoming more expert in technology than they are” (Stephen Reid, Immersive Minds, cited on Future Scot online article). In order to avoid this potential complication, we were informed how to efficiently use games-based learning. “Theorists Jean Piaget and Leonard Vygotsky have argued that play is a crucial component of cognitive development from birth and through adulthood” (Higher Education Academy website) Since reading this, as a student teacher, I am not willing to deprive my future pupils of the opportunities games-based learning brings, therefore I was very glad to be fully informed how best to use games-based learning to improve my confidence when doing so. We were taught this week to be clear about the learning intentions throughout, make distinct links to experiences and outcomes and use appropriate games and select parts of these games relevant to meeting the intended outcome. As role models, we must ensure that games-based learning has a positive impact on social skills, supports and enhances learning, develops skills and provides opportunities to apply these skills.

After learning about the benefits of games-based learning, we were to put our knowledge into practice and work in groups to create an interdisciplinary plan showing which curricular areas games-based tasks could be integrated with. Focusing on Mario Kart, we were able to cover the curricular areas of: literacy, expressive arts, health and wellbeing, technology and numeracy. However, we were not limited to these subjects alone and recognised that we had many ideas across the curriculum just for Mario Kart. This emphasised to us the vast potential lessons that can be created from games.

For literacy, we imagined that children could write a diary entry pretending they had been part of an audience watching a Mario Kart race. Throughout their piece of writing, their aims would be to include a specific number of adjectives and descripting words. This would cover the curriculum outcome: ‘I can spell the most commonly-used words, using my knowledge of letter patterns and spelling rules and use resources to help me spell tricky or unfamiliar words’ LIT 1-21a.

The Expressive Arts lesson we planned was for pupils to create their own cars using paint and decorating cardboard boxes. Once these have been completed, pupils could perform a drama pretending to be part of a real race. The curriculum outcome completed by this would be: ‘I have experienced the energy and excitement of presenting/performing for audiences and being part of an audience for other people’s presentations/performances.’ EXA 0-01a / EXA 1-01a / EXA 2-01a.

Our health and wellbeing lesson would follow on from this art lesson as the children could use the cars they had previously created to display their road safety knowledge showing when it is suitable to cross, speed, waiting at traffic lights and zebra crossings etc. We got this idea from the curriculum outcome: ‘I know and can demonstrate how to travel safely’ HWB 0-18a / HWB 1-18a / HWB 2-18a.

For a technology lesson, we came up with the idea of allowing pupils to create cars, tracks and a setting with drawings and other materials to use in their own iStop Motion animation. This would come under the curriculum outcome: ‘I can extend and enhance my design skills to solve problems and can construct models’ TCH 2-09a.

For numeracy our lesson plan was to give the children a set budget to use and decide what to buy such as which race car, which tools and what other equipment they may need. Curriculum outcome: ‘I can manage money, compare costs from different retailers, and determine what I can afford to buy.’ MNU 2-09a.

In conclusion, this lesson made me much more aware of the endless possibilities games-based learning can bring to a classroom. It helped me realise I must be confident in this aspect of teaching to give my future pupils to opportunities they deserve. Thanks to this session, I now have a greater understanding of the benefits and possible lessons games can bring.

Games-based Learning (2) – (13/03/18)

Today in digital technologies we were studying the idea of games-based learning within the classroom and how this could enhance understanding for the children. This week is linked vaguely to last weeks as they were both surrounding lessons involving a game to enhance further learning. This week however it was based upon Minecraft for the … Continue reading Games-based Learning (2) – (13/03/18)

Today in digital technologies we were studying the idea of games-based learning within the classroom and how this could enhance understanding for the children. This week is linked vaguely to last weeks as they were both surrounding lessons involving a game to enhance further learning. This week however it was based upon Minecraft for the iPad. I was a little more apprehensive about this weeks input as I have never used this app before and had no idea how it worked. This session however was very different from any other we have completed, as our lecturer got in contact with a school that had a group of digital leaders who came along and enlightened us on how this application has benefitted their learning. The ability to work with these children was very helpful for me as it was good to discuss their own opinions on the software and what skills they learned using it within the school. The children brought along their work that they had completed in the class which was based upon a Harry Potter theme. They let us explore their worlds that they had created, and our challenge for the university students was to work in teams to create another aspect for their world without the children physically doing this for us. This was a very interesting experience as we were able to feel what it was like for brand new learners of the software, the obstacles they had to overcome and then getting to see our final product.

According to the Ofcom Report (2011) it claims that “gaming is hugely popular in the UK with almost 86% of 5-7 year old children and 90% of 8-11 year old children using gaming devices regularly”. This shows that the use of games-based learning is very beneficial for children as they can use their knowledge both at home and in then classroom. This provides a very strong link between home and school life and gives children the ability to involve parents in their learning and progress of certain skills within the classroom.

Beauchamp (2012) states that the type of skills that could be developed by ICT games include; strategic thinking, planning, communication, application of numbers, negotiating skills, group decision-making and data handling skills. All of these skills are very important to a child’s development when growing up in the 21st century and can be used when they begin a job in their future.

Within the CfE using Minecraft can achieve the Experience and Outcome “I can explore and experiment with digital technologies and can use what I learn to support and enhance my learning in different contexts, TCH 1-01a”. This shows that although this is a technology-based game, it can however be adapted and used for many different curricular areas therefore covering a larger variety of CfE outcomes depending on the subject.

Overall, I really enjoyed this session of digital technologies as we were able to see more of the theories in practice and got to hear first-hand what children in the 21st century think of more games-based learning in classrooms. I found this beneficial and also enjoyable as it was a very fun session allowing our imaginations to run wild when creating another building in the Minecraft world. This is something I would love to consider using within the classroom as I progress further to become a student teacher.

References

Beauchamp, G. (2012) ICT in the Primary Classroom: From Pedagogy top Practice. Pearson.

Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes, Ofcom (2001)

Curriculum for Excellence

Digital Technologies Week 11 – 20.3.18

In our final week in Digital Technologies, we looked at using QR codes to enhance outdoor learning. Outdoor learning was something that I experienced at school without the technology aspect of learning, so I was looking forward to experience the … Continue reading

In our final week in Digital Technologies, we looked at using QR codes to enhance outdoor learning. Outdoor learning was something that I experienced at school without the technology aspect of learning, so I was looking forward to experience the outdoors and combine it with technology.

“Outdoor learning experiences are often remembered for a lifetime. Integrating learning and outdoor experiences, whether through play in the immediate grounds or adventures further afield, provides relevance and depth to the curriculum in ways that are difficult to achieve indoors” (Learning & Teaching Scotland,2010). If children are enjoying a lesson, they are more likely to remember it and retain the information they learned. This is one of the reasons I think Digital Technology is a useful resource for teachers. It is an enjoyable experience not only for children but for the teachers too.

In conjunction with exploring the QR reader, we also looked at an application called Pic Collage. To become familiar with the app, we created a collage of our life here at UWS before we started the task. Our task today was to crack the QR code by using the QR Reader on the iPad  and find all the QR codes outside.  Each QR code asked us a question and gave us a letter for each answer. From this, we had to figure out the secret word and scan the QR to confirm we were right. QR stands for quick response  and is based on an image-based hyperlink. A QR code can store 7089 numbers in comparison with a standard barcode that can only hold up to 30 numbers. ›A QR code can also  link to a short bit of text, an audio recording, a website, a phone number, an email address, a map location, an calendar event.We then had to create a collage based on our outdoor learning task using Pic Collage. I thought this was a great task. It is fun and exciting for children and allows them to experience the outdoors and their surroundings. Learning and Teaching Scotland (2010) suggest that “it’s clear that the outdoor environment offers motivating, exciting, different, relevant and easily accessible activities from pre-school years through to college.” There are many advantages of outdoor learning. It can help develop their critical thinking skills as it can help children to make links with other curricular areas. It enhances their personal development such as their problem solving skills, communication with each other and working with others. In addition to this, it can also promote a healthy lifestyle which can then lead to a life long recreation such as hill walking, cycling, and swimming. Personal safety is another advantage of outdoor learning as it can provide opportunities for children to develop skills to assess and manage the risks that outdoor learning can impose. One of the biggest advantages for me is that outdoor learning includes everyone. It can provide opportunities for children to use a wide range of skills and abilities that are not always visible in the classroom. This in turn can increase individual’s self-worth and change the way other children perceive them. Children are always exploring the outdoors and Beauchamp (2012) states that “children are citizens of their localities, making contributions to the communities whether playing sport, interacting with others or simply hanging out with friends”. Outdoor learning helps children to interact and communicate with others. This is a valuable skill they use in life. The 7 Principles of Design in the Curriculum for Excellence  resonates with the essential concepts of outdoor learning. “Challenge, enjoyment, relevance, depth, development of the whole person and an adventurous approach to learning are at the core of outdoor pedagogy” (Education Scotland, 2010).

 

Throughout this lesson, I thought it was quite interesting how many aspects of the GIRFEC (Getting it Right for Every Child) was covered by outdoor learning. The SHANNARI Wheel demonstrates eight Health & Wellbeing indicators for children; Safe, Healthy, Achieving, Nurtured, Active, Respected, Responsible and Included. It also links in with the four capacities in the Curriculum for Excellence ; Successful Learners, Confident Individuals, Effective Contributors, and Responsible Citizens. In pairs, we had to pick one of these indicators and discuss our thoughts on how outdoor learning can achieve these indicators. We picked respect as it is important that children learn to respect the environment and not pick any living flowers or leaves from trees, keeping quiet in certain areas, and not littering. Respect also occurs between the pupil and the teacher. For example, if the teacher explains to a child not to do something and gives a good reasons to stay safe, the pupil then respects the rules the teacher has set. By following the rules the teacher has set the children are safe and become responsible for their own actions. All of these indicators can be achieved by outdoor learning and it is vital the children have the opportunity to experience it.

Experience & Outcomes from Outdoor Learning:

“I am learning to assess and manage risk, to protect myself and others, and to reduce the potential for harm when possible.” HWB 0-16a / HWB 1-16a / HWB 2-16a

“Through taking part in a variety of events and activities, I am learning to recognise my own skills and abilities as well as those of others.” HWB 1-19a

“I can explore and experiment with digital technologies and can use what I learn to support and enhance my learning in different contexts.” TCH 1-01a

 

In conclusion, I think it is vital that children experience outdoor learning. After experiencing today’s lesson, outdoor learning is definitely an enjoyable and memorable way of learning. As a teacher, you want the children to remember and take lots of experiences from your lesson. They also gain many valuable skills such as communication, critical thinking skills, problem solving skills and this helps them grow as an individual. Outdoor learning also covers many cross- curricular areas. By using the QR reader, many quizzes can be created and can be tailored to suit the topic that is being covered. This application gives teachers flexibility as it can be adapted to any age. The SHANNARI Wheel is also an important aspect to follow as many of them can be covered by outdoor learning. It can build up their personal development and also promotes a healthy lifestyle.. These skills will be carried throughout their lifetime.

 

Throughout this module, I feel that my confidence has grown week by week. Some areas of Digital Technologies I have experienced before and had a sound knowledge of. However, there are many areas that I had never came across before such as Minecraft and Scratch Jr, but now I feel I could use them in the classroom. Digital Technologies has opened up my mind to various lesson planning ideas in the classroom and the links to the Curriculum for Excellence for those lessons. I have learned a lot about using technology in the classroom and the benefits it can have for children. With technology growing in today’s society, it is important as a teacher that we keep up with it and embed it within children’s learning so that they are picking up essential skills such as problem solving, critical thinking skills and communication skills. I can see how teachers would be afraid of using technology in the classroom, however it is vital that they have the support within the curriculum to gain that confidence to teach it in schools. In my future career as a teacher it is something that I will definitely use in my classroom.

 

 

References

›Beauchamp, G. (2012) ICT in the Primary School: From Pedagogy to Practice. Pearson Education Limited.

›Education Scotland (2010) Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning. [Online] http://moodle.uws.ac.uk/pluginfile.php/105271/mod_resource/content/3/cfeoutdoorlearningfinal_tcm4-596061%20copy.pdf [Accessed: 27th March 2018]

Education Scotland (2016) Curriculum for Excellence: Technologies Experiences and Outcomes. [Online] https://education.gov.scot/Documents/Technologies-es-os.pdf [Accessed: 27th March 2018]

›Learning and Teaching Scotland (2010) Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning. [Online] https://education.gov.scot/Documents/cfe-through-outdoor-learning.pdf [Accessed: 27th March 2018]

Scottish Government (2010) http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0043/00438639.jpg

 

Digital Technology Week 11 – Outdoor Learning/QR Codes

Digital Technology Week 11 – QR Codes and Outdoor learning This was our final week in Digital technology and this week we focused on the us of QR codes in the class, but we also merged this with outdoor learning. I have had some experience when I was younger of outdoor learning but not very …

Continue reading “Digital Technology Week 11 – Outdoor Learning/QR Codes”

Digital Technology Week 11 – QR Codes and Outdoor learning

This was our final week in Digital technology and this week we focused on the us of QR codes in the class, but we also merged this with outdoor learning. I have had some experience when I was younger of outdoor learning but not very much of it. I have seen a lot of QR codes and have used them before to access websites, but I didn’t know that they could be used to ask and answer questions in a school setting and I didn’t know you could make your own codes.

We discussed the many benefits of outdoor learning being used in school and how easy it can be to do. Learning and Teaching Scotland say “Integrating learning and outdoor experiences, whether through play in the immediate grounds or adventures further afield, provides relevance and depth to the curriculum in ways that are difficult to achieve indoors.2 this shows that many of the seven core values of the curriculum for excellence can easily be completed without realising it during outdoor learning. I have memories from primary school of outdoor learning as I remember my class along with many other children enjoy going outside and this therefore engages them to what they are being taught. “…it’s clear that the outdoor environment offers motivating, exciting, different, relevant and easily accessible activities from pre-school years through to college.” Education Scotland (2010). This explains that everyone loves going outside and completing activities in nature. This was also evident when we completed our task in the workshop as even when we are in university we enjoyed and were engaged doing outdoor learning. We discussed that there is a difference between outdoor learning and learning outdoor, learning outdoor is just taking the learning from the classroom to the outside where as outdoor learning is using the outdoors to learn or enhance the learning activity. “…children are citizens of their localities, making contributions to the communities whether playing sport, interacting with others or simply hanging out with friends…” (Beauchamp, 2012, p. 126). This tells us that outdoor learning can include all areas of the curriculum such as physical education not only literacy or topic work. it reminds us that all children are good at things and they may not be school work but as teachers we must make sure they are able to excel in their specific area be that football, as teachers this is where you see the best in that child that may not normally speak up.

 

This week’s activity was a treasure hunt type activity, where we went outside and had to find the posters around the university grounds which had a QQR code on it we then scanned it with our iPads and answered the question that came up which gave us a letter. Once we had found all the letters we had to unscramble them to create a word, all the questions were Scottish based and so was the word. The final word was HAGGIS and we then scanned the final code which told us we had the right answer. This activity could easily be done in a classroom on any subject matter you just have to make up appropriate questions and posters. This could also be taken inside the school if the weather is an issue for the outdoor learning. When we got back to university we learnt how to work the QR code app and in small groups we made our own questions with QR codes and a worksheet for the children to work out the final word. My group decided to do Spanish colours as our topic, as me being the only one in the group how does French, not Spanish I made the worksheet while the other two made up the Spanish questions. I think this would be a good activity to do with children outside.

The specific experiences and outcomes that I feel could be connected to outdoor learning could be, “Through taking part in a variety of events and activities, I am learning to recognise my own skills and abilities as well as those of others.” HWB 1-19a and “I am aware of the role physical activity plays in keeping me healthy and know that I also need to sleep and rest, to look after my body.”  HWB 1-27a, as they refer to physical activity and activities. The outcome that could be connected to the use of the QR codes is “I can explore and experiment with digital technologies and can use what I learn to support and enhance my learning in different contexts.” TCH 1-01a. About the activity questions my group created the experience and outcome connected to it is “I experiment with new language, working out the meaning of words and phrases using vocabulary I have learned so far.” MLAN 2-11c. A the children as using their prior knowledge of what they have learnt about how to say colours in Spanish.

Overall, I enjoyed the tasks we completed today. I think that I will use outdoor learning a lot when I am a teacher with my class. I also enjoyed learning how QR codes can be used in lessons and I am sure that I will make lesson plans including using these to engage and include all the children.

This was our last week in Digital Technology, so we revisited the sheet that we completed at the start of the module. This included us rating our confidence in the use of certain pieces of technology that can be used in the classroom. At the start of the module I was mainly very unconfident in using the devices. For example, the bee-bot I had never touched one before this class and I now am very confident in using it and would love to create lessons around it. This was the case for many of the devices and I am now very confident in using them all. I really enjoyed this module and feel as though I have learnt loads of valuable things that I am sure I will use in the future. I am very glad I chose this as a module to be completed in my first year at university.

References

·         Beauchamp, G. (2012) ICT in the Primary School: From Pedagogy to Practice. Pearson Education Limited.

·         Education Scotland (2004) Curriculum for Excellence; Experiences and Outcomes [Online] https://education.gov.scot/scottish-education-system/policy-for-scottish-education/policy-drivers/cfe-(building-from-the-statement-appendix-incl-btc1-5)/Experiences%20and%20outcomes [Accessed on 20th March 2018]

·         Education Scotland (2010) Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning. 

·         Learning and Teaching Scotland (2010) Curriculum for Excellence Through Outdoor Learning.

Digital Technology Week 10- 13/03/2018 (Games-based Learning- Minecraft)

Today we were specifically exploring using minecraft as a stimulus for learning, this was an important lesson as “Minecraft is a worldwide phenomenon. Since it was first released back in 2011, it’s been taken to the hearts of thousands and thousands of gamers.”  (Magbook, 2014, p.3) as Beauchamp states “Children spend most of their time on […]

Today we were specifically exploring using minecraft as a stimulus for learning, this was an important lesson as “Minecraft is a worldwide phenomenon. Since it was first released back in 2011, it’s been taken to the hearts of thousands and thousands of gamers.”  (Magbook, 2014, p.3) as Beauchamp states “Children spend most of their time on games not found in schools.” (Beauchamp, 2012, p.9). In order for games-based learning to be as successful as it has the potential to be, the games used in classrooms must be relevant to what the children play, talk about and engage with at home. This also then leads to the learning continuing when the children go home. They may recognise different aspects of the game and link that to what they learned whilst playing or discussing it at school. As  Minecraft is such a worldwide phenomenom and can lead to so many stimulating learning opportunities which we explored throughout the lesson, as a teacher it is an important game to be familiar with.  Ofcom reports that 86% of 5-7yr olds and 90% of 8-11 using gaming devices regularly (Ofcom, 2001)  This is a huge percentage of children and in order to make learning relevant to their life this statistic must not be ignored as gaming devices now play an important role in children’s every day life.

 

Today we had the opportunity to work with Primary 6 pupils from a local primary school. As an aspiring primary school teacher it was great to work with the pupils and for me it reinforced my love of working with children and therefore, why I am spending so much time studying, writing blogs and taking exams!

The children alongside one of their class teachers visited us to show how they incorporate minecraft in their learning. They also brought their own iPads, with the Minecraft app installed so we could have some hands-on experience of the game. For the first half of the lesson the children were in control of the iPad and showed us around the game, answering any questions we had. Watching the two girls in our group they made this look easy and could very quickly find the tools and equipment they needed to build anything they wanted! However, during the second half of the lesson the iPads were handed over to us and the children were given instructions not to touch the iPad, they could only use their words to explain to us what we had to do. Being handed the iPad first I found it difficult to even place one brick from my ‘stores’ into the wold we were creating and quickly realised that it would take a long time for me to be anywhere near the level of ability the pupils had reached. The two girls did an incredible job of describing to us what we were to do and step-by-step instructions of how to do this. As Graham discussed with us at the end of our lesson this was an important lesson for us to remember in the future when we are teaching children to use computers, put our hands behind our back and talk them through it as if we just take the mouse and do it for them, we can already do it however they won’t be learning how to.

Whilst discussing the game with us the children were able to become the teachers and explain to a group of 4 adults different aspects of the game they liked, explain and show us the different worlds and characters you could create and finally coach us (4 completes novices) through playing the game…a difficult task for anyone never mind a primary 6 pupil. The two girls working with us did this with ease, confidence and a smile on their face the whole time. The girls were clearly very engaged with this game and I believe this engagement gave them the confidence to be able to discuss and explain the game thus so fluently. Some of the main comments I picked up from talking with the girls were

“It’s really interesting sharing and seeing each other’s worlds”

“You have to work out how many you need”

“What shall we do, we could make this, what do you think?”

alongside this the two girls in our group would discuss any question they couldn’t answer either with each other or with another group, communication and problem solving to find the answer.

These comments reinforce some of the work by Beauchamp who states the skills which are developed through games-based learning, including:

  • Planning
  • Communication
  •  Negotiating Skills
  • Strategic Thinking
  • Application of numbers
  • Group Decision Making

(Beauchamp, 2017)

 

After having the opportunity to work with the children it was clear to see the development of these skills through the use of games-based learning in a real-life school setting.

Towards the end of the children’s time with us the class teacher discussed further with us the ways in which she uses Minecraft with the children. She encouraged us to not to be scared or embarrassed to learn from the children as she is still learning things about the game from them. As we had discussed in many lessons previously, children really are the experts at many of these games and they can further our knowledge and introduce us to different aspects of the game which may allow us to create more, better ways to use games-based learning and as Beauchamp states “…Achieving particular educational objectives through the use of the game was more dependent upon a teacher’s knowledge of the curriculum with which they were working than it was on their ability with the game.”
(Beauchamp, 2012, p.10). Therefore our understanding of the curriculum and how to use the game in order to achiever various outcomes is more important than an in-depth knowledge and ability in the different games.

The class teacher also commented on how she uses Minecraft as a stimulus for literacy, writing and in topic work. The children are currently doing a topic on Harry Potter and so they are currently creating a Harry Potter world where all the children join and build new parts of the Harry Potter World together. All of these ideas further reinforced the important role Minecraft can play when used by someone with the knowledge on how to use it. However, the story which resonated with me the most was when the children’s teacher told us about a new child during a trial day at the school.  Throughout the day the child barely spoke a word, however when the children began taking about minecraft the new girl joined in the conversation and was able to give advice and tutor the other children through different tips and tricks she had discovered. It was amazing to hear about the ability a game has to bring people together. This common ground and shared interest gave her the confidence she did not have during the day and allowed her to make friends with others.

 

 

Todays learning provided me with so many examples of the ways Minecraft could be used as a stimulus for learning, as the learning does not come from the game, the game provides a stimulus to allow further learning (Bray, 2012). An example of this could be as a stimulus for topic work. This could work for anything from the Romans to Titanic and The Egyptians. The children could create a world or a scene based on their topic, for Egyptians they could create a Pyramid or Titanic they could create their own ‘unsinkable’ boat. They could work to create this in groups or create a whole world as a class, each responsible for a different area of the topic. This could lead to many cross-curricular learning opportunities including a literacy lesson presenting their world to the class or an art lesson creating their world from various materials including boxes, paint or natural materials found in their playground. Some of the experiences and outcomes I identified from the Curriculum for excellence include, however are definitely not limited to:

  • When I engage with others, I can respond in ways appropriate to my role, show that I value others’ contributions and use these to build on thinking-LIT 2-02a
  • I can create, capture and manipulate sounds, text and images to communicate experiences, ideas and information in creative and engaging ways-  TCH 1-04b / TCH 2-04b
  • I can use exploration and imagination to solve design problems related to real-life situations-EXA 1-06a
  • When listening and talking with others for different purposes, I can:
    • share information, experiences and opinions
    • explain processes and ideas
    • identify issues raised and summarise main points or findings
    • clarify points by asking questions or by asking others to say more-LIT 2-09a

Bray (2012) states that in a classroom setting, games should not just be used as rewards or for entertainment but as a whole new approach to learning and today’s lesson has been an excellent example of how this can be done and the benefits this approach is bringing to the pupils in a local primary school.

 

References 

Beauchamp, G (2017) Computing and ICT in the Primary School From Pedagogy to Practice 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

Bray, O (2012) Playful Learning: Computer Games in Education [Online] available https://www.slideshare.net/Microsofteduk/playful-learning-computer-games-in-education/2-the_microsoft_visual_identity_the [Accessed 13 March 2018].

MagBook (2014) How to Do Everything in Minecraft

Scottish Government (2008) The Curriculum for Excellence [Online] http://www.education.gov.scot/Documents/all-experiences-and-outcomes.pdf   [Accessed 13 March 2018]