Category Archives: edushare

The Land Before Time

During one of our most recent inputs with Richard we discussed a bit about time which eventually led us into a discussion about timetables and how they work.

We began talking a bit about the study of time- also known as Horology, and it’s importance to humans. The more I thought about it the more I began to realise that pretty much our whole lives are influenced by time, from the moment we get up to the moment we go to sleep at night our whole day is based on this mathematical concept without bus even thinking about it. If we really think more into it it’s not just humans that base their lives on time, what about animals? do they have any idea about time?

If we firstly think about household pets such as our beloved dog, many of us can say that when it reaches a certain time in the day the dog goes wild demanding food or their daily walk. This could be referred to as a “body clock” so we could say that animals have some concept of time, although it is hard to say whether its their internal clock or just when their tummy starts to rumble. When we think about other animals, if their routines aren’t influenced by humans, for example an owl, how do they know that they should come out at night? They have special eyesight for night time so we could say that it is just in their genetic makeup to know when to go to sleep and when to wake up. Hibernation is a similar concept, how do animals know to stock up on food and when to go to sleep for the winter?. Birds also know when to migrate, most of this could just be down to the weather being simply too cold for them to cope with so every year they come up with the same ideas of hibernation and migration? Or we could say that time is embedded into their instincts telling them when it is time to change their behaviour to suit their surroundings.

funny-owl

So before we had created our mechanical clock that we still use today how did we tell the time? was it just embedded into our instincts? Well Marie, N. (2016) helped with my understanding of the early use of time by speaking about sundials. A sundial uses shadow to track the movement of the sun which then gives us the time of day according to its position. Within our input we discussed just how much maths really applies to this, before using it people would have needed to be clear about what speed the sun moved at, did it travel at the same speed all day? This shows us that there was an understanding of maths and how to link mathematical concepts to apply it to real life.

sundail-cartoon

Overall this input helped me to understand what it means to have a “profound” or “specialist knowledge of fundamental mathematics” as it has given me yet more examples of how maths can be used beyond the classroom without us even thinking about it!

Marie, N. (2016) When Time Began: The History of Science and Sundials. Available at: https://www.timecenter.com/articles/when-time-began-the-history-and-science-of-sundials/. [Date Accessed: 10/11/16]

Maths in Art

Throughout the Discovering Mathematics module we have learned that there is a lot more to maths than just timetables and textbooks, maths is all around us! It’s in space, nature and even in art. Who would’ve thought? In our recent lecture about maths in art all I could think was wow, in a subject once considered boring we can combine the fun and enjoyment of art to completely change children’s attitude towards mathematics.

In Liping Ma’s idea of a “profound understanding of fundamental mathematics” she mentions “interconnectedness” and this is great example of how we can connect two topics that at first glance, seem completely unrelated.

Pattern

islamic-geometry-1

If we look at the above example of Islamic art it is clear that mathematics came into play during its creation, art of this origin is usually stuffed to the brim with beautiful geometric designs that include mathematical concepts such as shape, repetition and rotation. symmetry plays an extremely vital role and many Islamic pieces allowing these mathematical concepts to develop, whether it be one main line of symmetry down the middle or several to create an endless number of beautiful patterns.

Symbolism

As well as within the patterns in Islamic art, mathematics is present within the ideas behind many of the creations, components of shapes are unpicked within the subject however within this art many of the components have meaning.

The equilateral triangle represents the ideas of “harmony” and “human consciousness” whereas a square is seen to represent the world and the four corners stand as the four directions (NORTH, EAST, SOUTH and WEST) also as the four elements (WIND, WATER, EARTH and FIRE). The third main symbolic shape throughout Islamic art is the hexagon which represents heaven. finally, the star is seen as a central area with the spread of Islam through its points.

Of course Islamic art is just one example of how maths and art intertwine, there are a number of ways that we could incorporate the two subjects to get children excited about maths again. Using them together will also encourage children to develop a specialist knowledge of the subject and will help them to see that their are multiple perspectives within the subject and they can use what they know to find out more about the world, not just to achieve the required answer to a problem.

Ma, L.(2010) Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics. New York: Taylor and Francis.

University of Leeds International Textiles Archive.(2008)Form, Shape and Space: An Exhibition of Tilings and Polyhedra. St. Wilfred’s Chapel: Leeds.

How Many Socks Make a Pair?

During one of our workshops Richard presented us with the question “In the dark, how many socks do we need to take out of a drawer to make a pair?” Not to my surprise, the group’s first answer was “two” because who really has the time to rummage through their sock drawer to find a matching pair of socks? However, once it had been cleared up that the socks had to be matching it soon became obvious that there was more to this problem than I first thought.

So, if we have 2 different colours of socks in our drawer, pink and blue for example(guaranteed visit from the fashion police if one of each is worn) and we have three of each colour, how many do we need to take out before we find a matching pair? it took me quite a while to get my head around this but I finally managed it.

So basically, we would need to take 3 socks out of the drawer to guarantee a pair! just 3! because if there are six socks and three of each of the two colours we could either pull out one of each colour or a pair within the first two, in the case of the first two being two different colours no matter what colour we pull out next we will make a pair! my mind is blown!

So what about writing a formula to help all of our fellow sock wearers out there? basically what we did was pull out a number one more than the number of colours of socks that we have, still with me? So if we represent the number of colours of socks with the letter “n” then the formula should be n+1.

So if were to try it with different numbers, if I have 3 colours of socks and 3 of each colour I would need to pull out 4 socks to guarantee that I had a pair, the extra sock is to support me if I am unlucky enough to pull out one of each colour within my first 3, the back up sock has to be one of the colours therefore this guarantees a matching pair!

While this is a fun concept, it is actually a great example of why having a “profound understanding of fundamental mathematics” is so important. It is easy to look at the question and come up with the answer “2” but if we really unpick the question it soon becomes obvious there is more to it. I used my previous knowledge of maths and applied it to this problem, this highlights that when teaching children about maths we should build up their conceptual understanding rather than just their procedural knowledge. This will give them better foundations for attempting problems without a set procedure and solution, it will build confidence and generate innovative thinking.

Eastaway, R.(2010) How Many Socks Make a Pair? Surprisingly Interesting Everyday Maths. London: JR Books.

Maths is More Than Meets the Eye

Since starting the Discovering Mathematics module I have been completely shocked and amazed at how interesting and relevant to real life the subject actually is!

For one of our tutor directed tasks we were asked to take a look at Liping Ma’s Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics chapter 5. This chapter really made it clear to me what it takes to be able to teach Maths successfully in the primary school. Ma, L(2010) frequently uses the term “Profound Understanding in Mathematics” or “PUFM” and in chapter 5 she explains what it means to have PUFM and how to promote it through teaching.

A teacher’s knowledge of mathematics should go beyond the set topic areas, it should be extremely wide and thorough Ma, L.(2010, p.133). There should be clear connections between topics that also link directly to everyday life. I strongly agree with this as I believe that children find it harder to stay engaged with a lesson if they can’t see themselves using it in the future. Whereas if it is linked to real life situations or even just to an area of interest such as football or any other hobbies that the various pupils may have then they are far more likely to tune in and gain more from the lesson.

Ma, L.(2010, p.134) presents four key elements to teaching in this way.

1. Firstly she uses the term connectedness, a teacher should be able to create and display links between various concepts within mathematics, the subject should not be learned as isolated topics but as a combined chunk of knowledge.

2. Secondly, we should provide pupils with multiple perspectives, encouraging them to find various approaches to reaching a solution, however it is important to put emphasis on the importance of justifying their methods, this will then lead to a more flexible understanding of mathematics.

During one of our Discovering Mathematics inputs we were lucky enough to be visited by someone from the Dundee Science Centre. This was extremely interesting a greatly backed up Liping Ma’s idea of multiple perspectives. As humans on Earth we have a pretty big influence upon our environment. However if we look at ourselves as humans on a planet in our solar system within space, we are tiny. Even compared to the Sun the Earth seems pretty insignificant! This displays that at first when we reach a solution in maths it is important to explore a little more so that we can gain a wider understanding of the concept and not just start celebrating because we got the number that’s in the answers at the back of the book.

perspective-for-blog-post

3. The third aspect Ma, L.(2010, p.134) highlighted was that teachers should reinforce basic ideas within mathematics, this will then encourage pupils to carry out real mathematical activity instead of just finishing a topic, moving on and forgetting everything that has been learned.

4. Finally, she talks about longitudinal coherence which to me, seems to be one of the most important. We should drop the attitude that certain topics are taught at certain stages in a child’s primary school life. We should always be referring back to previous learning and seizing opportunities to lay the foundations for the future. This one particularly stood out to me as many teachers may just teach the class what they need to know until they are no longer their responsibility.

I feel as though Liping Ma has really encouraged me to look at Mathematics in an entirely different way, in the future when I am about to teach a Maths lesson I will think more about what concepts are behind the topic that I am teaching, what parts of the children’s previous knowledge can I pull from to make it clearer for them and how can I link it to everyday life to make it more relevant?

References

Ma, L.(2010) Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics. New York: Taylor and Francis.

Why is Teaching Health and Wellbeing Important?

Firstly, I would like to say how strongly I feel about the importance of teaching children about Health and Wellbeing from a very early age. I think it would be ridiculous to teach children about fractions and symmetry but not educate them at all about looking after themselves.

Health and Wellbeing focuses on many different aspects of life but I definitely think that it is all key information that can really help children to make informed decisions right from their first few years on earth. It teaches children about their mental, emotional and physical health as well as preparing them for the changes that they will go through in the years to come. Some may argue that teaching children topics such as “sex and relationships” is inappropriate but with the amount of younger children using social media these days it is inevitable that they will find out at some point so obviously it is much better for it to come from a professional. 

Relationships don’t always have to be romantic ones, from the moment we are born we are forming relationships with others around us, if we can’t make and keep friendships then this may have a negative impact on mental health also. I know from personal experience that during tough times my friends can sometimes be the only ones that keep me positive so I personally think that it is brilliant that there is room within the curriculum to educate children about this.

As well as this, children are taught from nursery about hygiene and food preparation, if they start eating healthy early on then they are way more likely to carry it on throughout their lives and then hopefully pass it on to the next generation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is ideal that health and wellbeing is taught in schools mainly because children spend all day every day with their class teacher and so they may be many of the pupil’s main role model. If a teacher speaks about healthy living then pupil’s may be more likely to follow.

 

Science Literacy Group Task TDT

AC1 – According to the Programme for International Student Assessment, scientific literacy is defined as “the capacity to use scientific knowledge, to identify questions and to draw evidence-based conclusions” It then goes on to tell us that “Clearly this does not mean turning everyone into a scientific expert, but enabling them to fulfil an enlightened role in making choices” This definition helps us to understand that science is something which should involve research of a specific area of science, ask relevant questions and find a suitable outcome. It also explains that science is a subject which should be enjoyed by pupils and teachers. Without noticing, we use science every day of our lives and a lot of our decision making comes from science. From choosing what to eat to considering how our decisions will impact the surrounding environment. So, an understanding of scientific literacy is extremely important in having a sound understanding of all types of science in everyone’s daily lives.

AC2 – Analysis of an example where a lack of scientific literacy has led to inaccurate media. Not all science literacy can be helpful. The MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccination is a good example of this. This vaccine is normally given to a child from around 12 to 18 months. This vaccine has almost got rid of these diseases. However only 60% of children in some areas of the UK are getting this vaccine, this might lead to an epidemic outbreak. The reason for this is because of a paper published by Andrew Wakefield. Wakefield suggested that the combination MMR jab caused autism. He studied children who were suffering from a kind of bowel disease that he thought could be linked to autism. (BBC 2014) Since the paper came out it has since been viewed as “misleading, dishonest and irresponsible” (Bad science 2010, no page given). It was also found out that the children who were tested, that these on were not performed in their own clinical interest and without ethical approval. (Bad science 2010) Studies more recently have showed that there is no link between autism and the MMR. A new study examined blood samples of 100 autism children and 200 children without autism. The results showed that 99% of samples showed no trace of the measles virus. So therefore there is overwhelming research that there is no link between the MMR and autism.

AC3 – Within scientific experiments, a fair test is one which the variables are controlled and bias is avoided. The aim of this is to provide reliable results that allow the experimenter to observe and identify the impact of one factor.

While exploring the concept of fair testing in the classroom, children should be encouraged to think about all of the factors that could influence the results of the experiment and which of these can be controlled. In this way, children are learning to become critical and then appreciate that absolute reliability may not be possible (Linfield, 2009. P3)

It is vital that children are taught the principles of fair testing within schools, because this allows them to recognise the wide variety of factors which can influence the results of a test or experiment. This knowledge allows children to be objective and to feel more confident to challenge or question information, rather than accepting it on face value.

Some may say that not all aspects of primary science need to involve fair testing. For example one of the primary school science experiences and outcomes states:

I can identify and classify examples of living things, past and present, to help me appreciate their diversity. I can relate physical and behavioral characteristics to their survival or extinction. SCN 2-01a (Scottish Government, 2009)

Fair testing may not need to be used for this particular outcome, however it will contribute to the child’s level of scientific literacy. (Jane Turner et al, 2012). Overall this supports the idea that fair testing does contribute to becoming science literate although it is not always vital. It is possible to become science literate without always using fair testing.

 

References

Jane Turner et al (2012) it’s Not Fair. Available at: https://www.ase.org.uk/journals/primary-science/2012/01/…/30-33.pdf (Accessed: 09/02/15)

Linfield, R S, 2009. Planning to teach Science: in the Primary Classroom. London: Hopscotch

OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] (2003) The PISA 2003 Assessment Framework – Mathematics, Reading, Science and Problem Solving Knowledge and Skills. Paris: OECD.
Scottish Government (2009) Curriculum for Excellence: Science: Experiences and Outcomes. Available at: http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/Images/sciences_experiences_outcomes_tcm4-539890.pdf (Accessed: 09/02/16)

Turbull, M. (2016) Creating Connections and Contagious Enthusiasm for Science. Available at: http://www.letstalkscience.ca/about-us/why-science.html (Accessed: 9th February 2016)

 

 

Let’s Make It Personal

Following the ePortfolio input where we had the opportunity to read some of our peers blog posts, I have realized that there are in fact a number of ways to display my professional thoughts within my own blog. I have also decided that I need to reflect more upon my own practice and take the initiative to create my own blog posts, not just sticking to tutor directed tasks.

Many of my peers have spoken about aspects of their personal life, I found this interesting as it made me feel like I was really beginning to understand the reasons behind their motivation to become a primary teacher. Some spoke of hobbies whilst others told stories about conversations with family members that really got them thinking. it was fascinating to see how much real life actually correlates to the theory that we have been looking at in lectures, workshops and tutorials.

Most of the best posts included some form of media, most commonly pictures or videos. I felt like this was successful as it allows any readers to gain a clearer understanding of what is being discussed in the post, as well as making it more interesting.

I think that others will benefit greatly from many of the posts that include personal experiences and media, due to the fact that for our tutor directed tasks we all write on many of the same topics and we are then directly able to compare our own posts with others and see how we could possibly improve and better our own work.