Category Archives: Professional Studies

Scientific Literacy

Scientific literacy and fair testing – Áine O’Neill, Gillian Daly, Iain Thomson

“Scientific literacy is the capacity to use scientific knowledge, to identify questions and to draw evidence based-conclusions.” (OECD, 2003) It allows us to expand our knowledge on science and allows us to learn about new things. It is very important to teach children about scientific literacy at a young age so they can start questioning scientific knowledge from a young age and gets them into the habit of questioning and understanding scientific literacy from a young age. Although scientific literacy is helpful with acquiring new scientific knowledge, not all scientific literature is true. A lot of scientific literature on the internet is false due to scientists lying about their results or falsifying evidence. Therefore, it is important to carefully read scientific literacy found online to make sure it is true. It is important to teach children that not everything they read on the internet is true.

A lack of scientific literacy could lead to inaccurate media reporting. An example of this is the ‘Changing diet could stop cancer’ theory.

In 1924, Otto Warburg suggested that an acidic diet could affect and be the cause of cancerous cells, after he discovered that cancer is caused by low oxygen and an acidic PH. His suggestion to patients was to change their diet to be less acidic and more alkaline by eating more of a green diet.

This suggestion caused fear within the public as it was new information released about cancer, and caused a great deal of hype within the media. However, after various investigations scientists concluded that cancer cells can not live in an overly alkaline environment, concluding that Otto’s theory was wrong. Scientists provided closure to Otto’s theory by discovering that blood is slightly alkaline, and is tightly regulated by kidneys and cannot be changed by what you consume. Due to this any extra acid or alkali that isn’t needed in the body is released from the body in urine.

Developing understanding of scientific concepts and language is a very time consuming activity. The scope of science is enormous and varied, so basic knowledge of scientific practice and language should be taught at a young age. This can be as a foundation for more skills, knowledge, and scientific inquiry required in the sciences.

Bybee (1997: cited Dunn and Peacock, 2015) suggested that scientific literacy followed a hierarchy, from knowledge of some scientific terms with no deep understanding of them, to multidimensional scientific literacy, where learners can apply concepts and theories to the world around them. There is much learning and teaching to go from the initial stage to the latter, so the introduction of science in the classroom at an early age is important.

The teaching of fair testing in schools gives children an idea of scientific practice, an introduction to scientific vocabulary, and the beginning of understanding how scientific evidence is used and interpreted. Without these skills, young people will struggle to understand the difference between scientific theories that have been verified through experimentation, and false scientific claims built on faulty, or fictional, scientific evidence (as above).



Dunne, M. and Peacock, A. (2015), Primary Teaching: A Guide to Teaching Practice, 2nd ed., Croydon, Sage.

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2003) The PISA 2003 Assessment Framework- Mathematics, Reading, Science and Problem Solving Knowledge and Skills. Paris: OECD (Accessed: 8/2/2017)




Maths is Magnificent!

i-love-math-pictures-love_math_1I love mathematics. This is not usually the first line that you read when someone is writing about their feelings towards mathematics. Most are negative, sometimes extreme in their descriptions of dislike. How is it possible that I enjoy and appreciate the flexibility and depth of mathematics as a subject, while others block themselves to its beauty by disregarding it as useless, or a thing that they cannot do? I had a positive image of mathematics from my home life. Both my parents studied biology at a university level, so they helped me to understand the importance maths has in understanding the world around us. For many, however, the stereotypes of mathematics have been passed down through the generations, by parent/carer or teacher, to our children. Haylock (2014, p.10) gives these examples from trainee teachers:

“My Mum would tell me not to worry, saying, ‘It’s alright, we’re all hopeless at maths!’ It was as if it was socially acceptable to be bad at maths.”

“Maths has an image of being hard. You pick this idea up from friends, parents and even teachers.”

My memories from primary school maths are neither negative or positive, but I do remember a level of competition. We would play a game called Buzz, which involved counting from 1 and saying ‘buzz’ every time you reached a multiple of the times table we were focusing on. This would be made more complicated by the addition of other times tables. While this game is fun to some pupils, it clearly highlights the differences between each pupils ability, and there will be an eventual ‘winner’. This could have a damaging effect on children confidence in their ability at that subject, leading to the anxieties that might be carried in to adulthood, then passed onto other children or learners.

Looking at the positives, this game did provide us with a more interesting way of remembering the multiples of different numbers. I still remember visualising a string of numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6… with the multiples poking above the others, in a different colour.

The usefulness of my thought process was not known to me at the time. This is sometimes why mathematical concepts are so easily dismissed as irrelevant, because there is a lack of examples of future applications provided for the learners. This animation is an example of how that thought process can be visualised. (I also included this because prime numbers are incredibly interesting and should be much more widely thought about in day to day life. Use this link for the Wikipedia page and research from there!)

With technology in primary schools it is possible to use resources like this in the learning of mathematics. There is software with mathematical games suitable for use in early years, and commercial videogames sold for entertainment that use recognition of patterns as the main challenge. In the Standards for Registration, section 2.1.4, it is expected that provisional and registered teachers should “know how to use digital technologies to enhance teaching and learning” (The General Teaching Council for Scotland, 2012). By incorporating ICT into our maths learning it can help reduce any anxiety that children might have picked up from their parents/carers and demonstrate mathematics as an engaging and everyday activity.

I went onto study mathematics, physics, chemistry, electronics, and music in secondary school, all of which require mathematical skills. The lack of confidence in maths leads to students not engaging with the sciences which can lead to a drop in scientific literacy. The exploitation of societies illiteracy in these subjects by the media, politics and businesses already happens today. These are some sentences I made using the Curriculum for Excellence four capacities to demonstrate the importance of mathematic and scientific literacy.

  • Successful learners with openness to new thinking and new ideas and able to make reasoned evaluations.
  • Confident individuals with ambition and able to asses risk and make informed decisions.
  • Responsible citizens with commitment to participate responsibly in political, economic, social, and cultural life and able to make informed choices and decisions.
  • Effective contributors with an enterprising attitude and able to apply critical thinking and new contexts.

(The Scottish Government, 2009)


Haylock, D. and Manning, R. (2014). Mathematics Explained for Primary Teachers. 1st ed. London: SAGE Publications.

The General Teaching Council for Scotland (2012) The Standards for Registration: mandatory requirements for Registration with the General Teaching Council for Scotland. Available at: (Accessed: 29 January 2017).

The Scottish Government (2009) Curriculum for Excellence: Building the Curriculum 4 – Skills for learning, skills for life and skills for work. Available at: (Accessed: 29 January 2017).

Play it!

Like many musicians before me I began my musical journey on the piano. Growing up in rural Aberdeenshire, it was the most popular and widely available instrument; you could find one in every school, village hall and community centre. Like many musicians before me, the piano fell by the wayside when I picked up my second instrument. Eventually, by the time I started my third, the piano had been relegated to the ‘instruments I used to play’ pile. With the wonderful benefit of hindsight, I now realise that I should have kept some proficiency, as it will be difficult to relearn the techniques after such a long time away from the keyboard.nljb33w

The piano is such a versatile instrument which is why I want to start ‘tinkling the ivories’ again. It can stand on its own in a solo performance or as part of an ensemble. It can also be a learning tool for single line musical instruments, such as the trombone or clarinet, and it can be used as an accompaniment. The latter of these qualities is very valuable when it comes to learning songs for a group, or solo, performance. There is another reason to take up playing again. I actually own an upright piano, and I have been putting off playing for too long. I should just sit down and play it!

While I was gaining teaching and classroom experience in a local primary school, I helped put the Christmas holiday play. That year was called, “Pirates vs Mermaids”. It had well written dialogue and was peppered with fun but challenging songs. The backing track for those came on a C.D. and the music was performed digitally (MIDI format) rather than by musicians. Even though the C.D. is a solid base for the songs, it could be more fun, and provide more learning opportunities, if the music was performed by the children as a band.

From my own experience and what I have observed in schools, singing in front of an audience usually comes with a lot of nerves and anxiety. By introducing the choice of playing an instrument, perhaps percussive like a tambourine and maracas or melodic like a glockenspiel and recorder, music becomes about more than just singing along to a C.D. The piano is important in this scenario because it provides the chord structure underneath the sung or played melody. This is why I am motivating myself to start playing again, so I can provide this assistance.

Playing and exploring music in this way is fun, but access to instruments is dependant on what is available in the school. While many instruments are expensive, such as brass, woodwind and strings, others are relatively cheap to acquire and maintain. The percussion section has both tuned and rhythmic instruments, which are sold in sets by educational resource providers, such as Music Education Supplies and the TTS group. Unfortunately, even though instruments are sold at low prices, some school budgets do not extend far enough to reach this aspect of the arts.

I know starting again will be a difficult process, as learning the piano was not easy for me compared to the other instruments I play, but I do love to learn. The coordination required to use individual fingers, on both hands, in the correct order stimulates the brain in a most wonderful way. I will update this blog with my progress as often as possible or when I reach what I consider to be a milestone (if I manage to make it that far without someone calling the authorities about the horrible noises I am making!).