Category Archives: Outdoor Learning

Has spring really sprung in St Cyrus?

It’s not just the weather that’s been busy these last few weeks at St Cyrus NNR as Andrew Ferguson, our reserves assistant, student placement, recounts.

Skylark. © Lorne Gill/SNH

Skylark. © Lorne Gill/SNH

It was a day peculiar to this piece of the planet,
when larks rose on long thin strings of singing
and the air shifted with the shimmer of actual angels.
Greenness entered the body. The grasses
shivered with presences, and sunlight
stayed like a halo on hair and heather and hills.
Walking into town, I saw, in a radiant raincoat,
the woman from the fish-shop. ‘What a day it is!’
cried I, like a sunstruck madman.
And what did she have to say for it?
Her brow grew bleak, her ancestors raged in their graves
as she spoke with their ancient misery:
‘We’ll pay for it, we’ll pay for it, we’ll pay for it!’

Alastair Reid

Raven. © Lorne Gill/SNH

The weather has been nice at St. Cyrus NNR for about three weeks now. Too nice. Worryingly nice. Skylarks are reeling and singing over the cattle field, the first early wildflowers (primrose and lesser celandine) have started to bloom, the ravens have built their new nest, the number of geese overhead is dwindling and at home there is more frog spawn in the pond than water.

“Spring is here!” people announce recklessly.

I am less convinced, squinting suspiciously at the sunshine and staunchly wearing full thermals, ready for the inevitable April blizzard.

Another month, another carcass washed up on the beach. This time it was something a bit different to the usual occasional porpoise. The carcass was about eight feet long, definitely cetacean and in quite an advanced state of decomposition. Identification of marine mammals in this state (known as blobsters) is difficult but based on the size, the skull and the shape of the body the team at SMASS thought that it could be a beluga whale, an arctic species and extreme rarity around the coast of Scotland. It was collected and necropsied as far as possible by a team from the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. On closer inspection it turned out to be a very large bottlenose dolphin with some spinal deformities. Still very exciting but not quite on the beluga level.

Everyone joined in with Surfers against Sewage to clean up the beach.
23 bags of rubbish and 68 cans and bottles from the beach!

We have almost finished the mammoth job of arranging our events programme for the year. Our events kicked off on Saturday the 1st April with a spring beach clean! We were joined by ‘Surfers against Sewage’ and lots of locals to blitz the beach! Greggs the bakers also kindly provided cakes. The events program then takes an arty turn and on Sunday 7th May weopened an exhibition in the visitor centre collated by the team at Arthoos, a collective of local artists. Ther will be three weeks of art workshops and, linking in with the Aberdeenshire Wellbeing Festival, an art therapy workshop. In summer we have an eclectic mix of events including wildlife identification workshops, four sessions with bushcraft expert Willow Lohr and our popular fungal foray. We will advertise exact dates and times on the Facebook page and down at the reserve.


The singing of the skylarks, the ravens’ nest-building and the imminent return of the swallows and house martins all serve as a reminder that the bird breeding season will soon be underway. As always we ask that from this time of the year dogs on the reserve are kept on a lead and under close control to minimise disturbance to the birds at this critical time and to respect the sanctuary area in the Southern part of the reserve.

You will be glad to know that in the time since I wrote the first paragraph of this article, the wind has picked up, the bins have blown over twice and some malevolent-looking dark clouds have closed in from the direction of Montrose. That’s more like it.


Food for Thought Education Fund

Food for Thought Education Fund

Food for Thought Phase 5 application

The Food for Thought Education Fund gives financial support to develop Food and Health as a context for learning. The fund aims to improve practitioner confidence in providing progressive, high quality learning experiences which help to embed food education into the ethos of the establishment. It also provides an opportunity to plan and implement learning experiences which build sustainability and capacity for future development.

Now in its fifth year, the Fund allows Local Authority Schools and Early Learning and Childcare settings to apply for grants of up to £3000 to develop projects that support the aims of the Fund. (Note – ASN establishments in the independent sector are also eligible to apply). Establishments may apply individually or as part of a cluster of schools from their education authority.

It is essential that food based projects include a business or community link . Business in the Community Scotland is a partner in the Food for Thought Fund and can help establishments to find a business/community link if help is required.

What Are We Looking for This Year?

Scottish Government’s aspiration that Scotland is a Good Food Nation, means a country where people from every walk of life take pride and pleasure in, and benefit from, the food they buy, serve, and eat day by day. It also means that :

  • It is the norm for Scots to take a keen interest in their food, knowing what constitutes good food, valuing  it and seeking it out whenever they can.
  • People who serve and sell food (including schools) are committed to serving and selling good food.
  • Everyone in Scotland has ready access to the healthy, nutritious food they need.
  • Dietary-related diseases are in decline, as is the environmental impact of our food consumption.
  • Scottish producers ensure that what they produce is increasingly healthy and environmentally sound
  • Food companies are a thriving feature of the economy and places where people want to work.
  • Other countries look to Scotland to learn how to become a Good Food Nation.’

This year, we are particularly interested in bids which will to contribute to this vision by:

  • ensuring learners have gained understanding about food education and can apply that knowledge and understanding, including a knowledge of the wide range of careers that are available in the Food and Drinks industry;
  • improving outcomes for learners in ways which seek to eliminate the inequity that currently exists amongst learners from different backgrounds and from particular vulnerable groups;
  • demonstrate an impact on learners, with learners being able to reflect on their knowledge of food and associated issues;

In this phase, we also ask that projects incorporate some or all of the following themes:

  • Developing the Young Workforce
  • STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths)
  • Inequity / Attainment Gap
  • Digital Learning
  • Progressive Interdisciplinary Learning
  • Learning for Sustainability
  • Outdoor Learning
  • Working with Parents/Community

Projects may also relate to national events and/or Government initiatives including :

Fund PartnersEducation Scotland is building on its strong partnership with Scottish Government with a continued commitment to high quality learning in health and wellbeing, including food education, across educational establishments in Scotland.

Business in the Community Scotland (BiTCS) brings together businesses and partner organisations across sectors to more effectively play their role in a stronger, fairer, wealthier, healthier, and greener Scotland.

In order to enhance skills for learning, life and work it is essential that you work in partnership with a business for this funding. BiTCS’s role in the Food for Thought Fund will be to help schools to link to a business or community organisation that can fulfil this role for the fund. These partners are not required to be a food based business/community organisation. Schools can also work with existing partners or create their own new partnerships. Securing a financial contribution from this partner is not mandatory; however it may be beneficial to your project if you were able to find additional income or ‘in kind’ funding to develop your project.

The Scottish Government is committed to ensuring all schools in Scotland embed food education through the implementation of Curriculum for Excellence, and the Schools (Health Promotion and Nutrition) (Scotland) Act 2007. The Government supports good quality learning and teaching around food through funding a number of stakeholders to engage and work with schools.

Application Details

Food for Thought Phase 5 application

 To apply for Food for Thought Phase 5 funding, please complete the attached application form to arrive by 14.00 on Wednesday 31st May 2017.   Examples of completed application forms from earlier phases are housed in the ‘Resources’ section of the Food for Thought Glow Newsfeed . (Glow log-in required)

Practitioners from previous phases have also shared photographs, stories and information about their projects through the newsfeed conversation.

A Glow Meet has been organised for Tuesday 25th April at 3.45pm and this will be an opportunity to ask questions about the application process or the project you are planning. If you would like to join me, Sign up here.

Please send completed application forms to :

World Heritage Day – 18 April 2017

Scotland has plenty to celebrate on World Heritage Day. We have six magnificent UNESCO World Heritage Sites which combine all sorts of history – the emphasis is on the architecturally and culturally significant, but there is a fair smattering of natural history interest in there too. Why not visit one of our fabulous sites this year – here’s a taster revealing what you can expect to find.

The Stone Circle at Ring of Brodgar, Orkney Isles. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

The Stone Circle at Ring of Brodgar, Orkney Isles. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

The stunning ancient monuments of The Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site were positioned in the landscape with great care.  Maes Howe, with its pudding-shaped grass mound, has its entrance aligned so the sun strikes the tomb chamber on the winter solstice.

The Ring of Brodgar stone circle stands dramatically on a narrow strip of land between lochs Harray and Stenness.  These, the two largest lochs in Orkney, are nationally important scientifically for their sequence from marine, through brackish, to fresh waters.  They support a rich diversity of plant and animal life.

The heathland on the low hills that fringe the wide loch basin is also designated, as it contains some of the best and largest areas of maritime grassland and heath in the UK, with plant species that include the rare Scottish primrose.  Further north on this coast lies the Stone Age village at Skara Brae.

It’s fair to say that in Orkney monuments and scenery intertwine to form an evocative cultural landscape that still resonates with us today.

Bonnington Linn, Clyde Valley Woodlands NNR. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

Bonnington Linn, Clyde Valley Woodlands NNR. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

New Lanark is a former 18th century cotton spinning mill village located on the banks of the Falls of Clyde just under one hour from Glasgow and Edinburgh. New Lanark attracts over 300,000 visitors annually from all over the world. The site has something of interest for everyone, visitors can go back in time and immerse themselves in the cultural and built heritage of the village, with its imposing buildings, or explore the natural heritage of the dramatic river gorge and the tumultuous Falls of Clyde.

From the natural heritage perspective the Falls of Clyde (actually a series of waterfalls) is the iconic focal point to this landscape.

The Falls are one of the largest in the UK and make a breath-taking spectacle, especially after heavy rain or snowmelt. Surrounded by steep gorge woodlands of oak and ash, much of it is owned and managed by the Scottish Wildlife Trust as their Falls of Clyde Wildlife Reserve. These woodlands are also an important part of the wider Clyde Valley Woodlands National Nature Reserve, one of the most biodiverse woodland habitats in Europe. The forests and gorges which surround the World Heritage Site are home to a wide range of wildlife, including peregrine falcons, badgers, otters, roe deer and kingfishers. Visitors can take advantage of an excellent path network which explores the reserve and provides access to the key viewpoints.

View over Princes Street and Edinburgh Castle from Calton Hill. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

View over Princes Street and Edinburgh Castle from Calton Hill. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

In contrast with New Lanark are the Old and New Towns of Edinburgh. It was the remarkable juxtaposition of two parts of the city, the Old and the New Towns, that led them to be declared a World Heritage Site in 1995. The Old Town had developed organically since medieval times but the New Town represented a carefully planned approach and dates from 1767. As well as being distinct in their architecture the two parts of the city also have underlying differences in their origins, founded on Edinburgh’s ancient volcanism.

The Old Town sits on the ridge running from Castle Rock down to Holyrood Palace. Castle Rock itself is a volcanic plug that formed on a lava flow from a volcano which was last active some 300-350 million years ago, and is part of Arthur’s Seat Site of Special Scientific Interest, along with Calton Hill. These distinctive features of the city’s landscape are nationally important for their geology.

Calton Hill is another prominent and iconic landmark on the skyline to the east of the New Town. It’s not a volcanic vent like Castle Rock but rather a fragment of the eruptions, formed by glaciation into a shape known as ‘crag and tail’. The hill’s natural elements of rock, gorse and woodland, together with the man-made buildings and monuments, make it popular with residents and visitors – looking down from the top gives you spectacular views of the Old and New Towns.

The buildings of the World Heritage Site don’t just have human interest either – they are important as homes for city-dwelling species such as swifts and bats, which use them for nesting and roosting. Swifts in particular have suffered a steep decline in breeding numbers due to loss of places to nest; they are completely dependent on buildings. To help, the Edinburgh Local Biodiversity Action Plan is encouraging the installation of swift boxes when older buildings in the city are undergoing renovations and there are a number of other biodiversity initiatives in Edinburgh, including action for pollinators in this urban landscape.

Kayakers under Forth Rail Bridge. ©beckyduncanphotographyltd/SNH

Kayakers under Forth Rail Bridge. ©beckyduncanphotographyltd/SNH

The iconic red steel structure of The Forth Bridge may be 127 years old but it wasn’t declared a World Heritage Site until 2015. It is the sixth and most recent addition to the list of WHS in Scotland. The accolade recognises that the bridge is ‘a potent symbol of Britain’s industrial, scientific, architectural and transport heritage and, in particular, Scotland’s engineering pedigree and ingenuity’. Amongst all the impressive metal work it’s easy to overlook the wildlife that surrounds it.

At either end of the bridge’s impressive span, lie the intertidal areas of the Firth of Forth Special Protection Area (SPA). Stretching along the coast from Alloa to the Fife and East Lothian coasts, the site is a mixture of rich intertidal flats, rocky shores, saltmarsh, lagoons and sand dune. These habitats attract large numbers of 27 species of wintering wildfowl and waders, such as pink-footed goose, shelduck, dunlin and turnstone. The Firth of Forth is so important for these birds, that it is designated as an SPA under European legislation.

If you were a bird at the top of the bridge, you’d be able to see the islands of Inchmickery, Long Craig, the Isle of May, Fidra, The Lamb, Craigleith and Bass Rock. Together, these islands make up another SPA, the Forth Islands SPA. They support almost 100,000 breeding seabirds, including fulmar, lesser black-backed gull and herring gull. Birds can be perverse creatures and don’t just nest on the islands in the Forth – sometimes they take a fancy to nesting on the rail bridge. This poses additional work for the bridge’s maintenance teams who have to remove the guano (birds’ droppings) and the leftovers from nest building! The chicks must have one of the most desirable views of any residence in the Lothians.

The village and bay from Conachair, Hirta, St Kilda. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

The village and bay from Conachair, Hirta, St Kilda. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

St Kilda is of global importance for breeding seabirds, supporting as it does about 700,000 individual seabirds in the breeding season (a figure based on the last full count of seabirds for the last British and all Ireland Seabird 2000 count). It is a notable stronghold for a number of seabird species such as Northern gannet, Northern fulmar, Atlantic puffin and Leach’s storm petrel.  The steep cliffs and offshore stacks provide ledges for cliff nesting species and the steep, grassy slopes hold about 25% of the British population of Atlantic puffin as well as the biggest colony of Leach’s storm petrel in the eastern Atlantic.

Seabirds on St Kilda, once hunted for food, are now fully protected by international designations, both on land and at sea.

Despite this, many seabird populations in Britain and Ireland have experienced marked declines in recent years, and seabirds on St Kilda are no exception.  While there may be multiple reasons for changes in particular species, there is little doubt that climate change has played a role in this through its effect on the availability of food at critical times of the year.  However the rich waters surrounding St Kilda and along the nearby edge of the continental shelf, continue to support large numbers of seabirds feeding on fish such as sandeels. The northern gannet colony appears to be stable, unlike other colonies that are increasing but is still one of the largest colonies globally, contributing to the spectacular sights and sounds experienced by visitors to St Kilda.

Walker on Antonine Wall. ©beckyduncanphotographyltd/SNH

Walker on Antonine Wall. ©beckyduncanphotographyltd/SNH

The construction of the Antonine Wall, part of the Frontiers of the Roman Empire WHS, started around AD 165 between the Forth and Clyde estuaries, and marked the new Roman frontier.  It was constructed mostly from layers of turf as opposed to the earlier and more southern Hadrian’s Wall which was built out of stone.  If you were to travel along the wall from the Forth to the Clyde then not only would you experience rich cultural heritage but natural heritage too!

During the winter months at the Forth estuary you will notice many of our wintering bird visitors, including dunlin, red-throated diver and the Slavonian grebe.  Moving inland and eastward you can visit Avon Gorge Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), an ancient, semi-natural woodland with many native tree species, and some rarities like the small leaved lime tree, and flowers such as the lily of the valley and moschatel.

Red-throated diver adult and young chick. ©Mark Hamblin/2020VISION

Red-throated diver adult and young chick. ©Mark Hamblin/2020VISION

This is also the area to head to if you want to see the internationally unique Falkirk Wheel that joins the Union Canal with the Forth & Clyde Canal, which is now fully open to boat traffic.  The Antonine Wall skirts alongside the Forth & Clyde Canal across much of the central belt with thriving local wildlife to enjoy, as the canal boaters do too.  Just north of Cumbernauld, again associated with the ecology of the canal, is Dullater Marsh – a Scottish Wildlife Trust reserve and a SSSI, with an unusual transition of fen, fen meadow, marshy grassland and fen woodland habitats, which host nationally scarce plants such as tufted loosestrife, as well as a range of marshland birds, like water rail, teal, snipe and grass hopper warbler.

Getting closer to Glasgow, and the historic features of the Antonine Wall encapsulate Cadder Wilderness SSSI, a very special birch and oak woodland that is home to three Red Data Book species of insects; a beetle and two sawflies – species that are internationally valued!  And as the Antonine Wall ends near the river Clyde you will encounter the Haw Craig and Glenarbuck SSSI with an area of ash and elm woodland, as well as a basalt escarpment rich in mosses and flowers, such as the shining crane’s bill and pellitory-of-the-wall.  One final stop overlooking the Clyde estuary and you might spy a flock of redshank feeding along the shoreline.  A winter visitor that is protected by the European network of Natura sites – we’ve come a long way since the Romans felt the need to build a wall to protect themselves from the Scots!

Dubh lochans on the blanket bog at Forsinard Flows National Nature Reserve. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

Dubh lochans on the blanket bog at Forsinard Flows National Nature Reserve. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

In addition to Scotland’s six existing World Heritage Sites, The Flow Country, an extensive area of blanket bog covering much of Sutherland and Caithness, is on the UK’s tentative list of future World Heritage Sites.

The Flow Country consists of an extensive area of blanket bog habitat within a wider complex of mountains, moorland and more fertile straths. It is one of the largest and most intact areas of blanket bog in the world. The total area of peatland in Sutherland and Caithness extends to some 400,000 ha, and around half of that contains the characteristic surface patterning, pools and bird assemblages synonymous with the term ‘Flow Country’.

Together with associated areas of mountains, heaths, fens and open water, it is of international importance for its habitat and the diverse range of rare and unusual breeding birds it supports, many of which are typically northern species found here at the southern limit of their range. These include red-throated diver, black-throated diver, golden plover, greenshank, golden eagle, merlin and short-eared owl.

It is also a huge carbon store, storing 100s of millions of tonnes of carbon, which if released into the atmosphere would contribute to climate change. The carbon stored in the peat of the Flow Country is about three times greater than that stored in all the UK’s forests.

The case for WHS status for the area, considered by independent experts to be ‘the best blanket bog of its type in the world’, is being developed by The Peatlands Partnership.

So World Heritage Day will allow us to revel in some of our most precious heritage sites; take a wider view and you are bound to enjoy some wonderful natural heritage sights too.

The Great Outdoors – Young People, Outdoor Learning and the 2020 Challenge for Scotland’s Biodiversity

Scotland is facing key pressures on its biodiversity. Some of these pressures are physical, such as pollution, the overuse of resources, or climate change. Others are more about the way we (under) value nature and the goods and services it provides in decision making. Modern living means we have less connection with it in our everyday lives and there is growing concern that younger generations are missing out on the experience of nature and the benefits it brings to learning and development.

Pupils from Kelvinside Academy Glasgow on a photography workshop at the Glasgow Botanic Garden.

Pupils from Kelvinside Academy Glasgow on a photography workshop at the Glasgow Botanic Garden.

Against this background, the Scottish Government has published Scotland’s Biodiversity a Route Map to 2020,  which has developed and helps direct priorities for action. It sets out six Big Steps for Nature, key amongst which is recognising the value of quality greenspace for health and education benefits and identifying a range of projects to engage young people with nature.

Why take learning outdoors?

The policy framework for outdoor learning is well established within Scotland’s Curriculum for Excellence and Learning for Sustainability is a core part of the General Teaching Council for Scotland’s (GTCS) Professional Standards. Outdoor Learning is one of the three core strands of Learning for Sustainability, alongside Global Citizenship and Sustainable Development Education, identified in the GTCS Vision 2030+ report (published March 2016), tying in with the UN Global Goals.

More generally, the Government’s National Improvement Framework , with its focus on attainments and equality, is cited as one of the most significant policy developments in Scottish education over the last 10 years. Outdoor learning can significantly contribute to delivering this agenda, but a key challenge remains to pull together the evidence base to demonstrate comprehensively that this is the case in everyday practice.

Outdoor classroom at St.Cyrus NNR.

Outdoor classroom at St.Cyrus NNR.

Improving attainment – how can outdoor learning help

The outdoors, particularly natural spaces, can stimulate and support learning in a way that the indoors simply cannot. Outdoor space allows children the freedom to move and express themselves, and learn by doing. Nature, across all of its aspects, weather and seasons, is dynamic, surprising, and multisensory. Include adventure and fun, and all these elements can motivate the learner and support experiences that provide depth, breadth, challenge and progression.

Many children and young people, who have disengaged from learning indoors, thrive in the outdoor context. Typically, high quality outdoor experiences are child-led and take an interdisciplinary approach. Often, teachers will experience a shift in attitude, seeing sometimes challenging learners in a new and positive light. Increasingly, parents want to know if their children have access to quality outdoor play and learning at nursery and school.

The importance of greenspace for health and wellbeing is recognised by the biophilia hypothesis (our innate positive response to the natural world). But how do we know outdoor learning really delivers education benefits? Anecdotal evidence, from teachers who have embraced outdoor learning approaches, is backed up by an increasing volume of empirical research. For example, recent collated evidence finds links between natural environments and learning.

Nearly a decade ago, Scottish Natural Heritage’s research report Young people’s interaction with natural heritage through outdoor learning Scottish Natural Heritage (2007), identified that “the effect of learning and play within green or natural places of all kinds…was particularly strong in generating greater engagement and challenge and enjoyment”. More recently, research published by Natural England in 2016 found ‘school students engaged in learning in natural environments have been found to have higher achievement (in comparison to their peers or projected attainment) in reading, mathematics, science and social studies, exhibiting enhanced progress in Physical Education and drama, and a greater motivation for studying science’. Whilst the RSPB identified higher English attainment amongst youngsters who were more connected to nature.

Examining frog spawn.

Examining frog spawn.

Learning through doing

Involving young people in the Route Map is an increasingly important part of SNH’s approach. In 2015/16, we funded 84 projects that engaged nearly 100,000 young people in outdoor recreation, learning, volunteering and citizen science activity. Many of these participants were from disadvantaged backgrounds or had other protected characteristics. Some of the third sector partners in this work include Grounds for Learning, John Muir Trust, National Trust; Outward Bound Trust; RSPB and The Conservation Volunteers (TCV).

One of the key projects identified in the Route Map is all about taking learning outdoors. Led by SNH, Learning in Local Greenspace aims to support 100 schools across Scotland’s most disadvantaged areas to have access to quality greenspace for outdoor learning by 2020. This project tackles the multiple challenges of addressing the attainment gap and community health and wellbeing, as well as engaging young people in the curriculum through outdoor learning.

Our Teaching in Nature programme, a career long professional learning programme for teachers developed by SNH with partners across Scotland, aims to support teachers to support learning outdoors in local greenspace and special places for nature.

The availability of dedicated staff, including Environment and Forestry (ENFOR) Outdoor Learning Project Officers, provided through Scottish Natural Heritage, supports a smarter, more joined-up way of working across Scotland’s environment, heritage forestry and national park bodies. Our online portal, the Outdoor Learning Directory, facilitates this collaboration and cross-boundary, cross-sector working by making it easier for teachers and others to find outdoor learning training, events, learning resources and grants provided by this sector.

Countryside ranger and kids at Mugdock Country Park near Glasgow.

Countryside ranger and kids at Mugdock Country Park near Glasgow.

Working in partnership with Young Scot, we have also established a national youth advisory panel to help us engage young people in each of the Big Steps for Nature set out in the Route Map. The Panel – named ReRoute – is made up of 16 volunteers aged 13-24 from across Scotland, are investigating and recommending to SNH and Scottish Government how to engage young people across Scotland in Scotland’s Biodiversity Strategy and Route Map to 2020. As part of this the panel have conducted a survey of young people, gathering opinions, and information about their understanding and relationship with nature. The results are encouraging and offer a positive view of the future which we hope will be explored further as part of the Year of Young People in 2018.

One youngster in Moray told us: “I think it’s important that we look after nature and the environment as it is beautiful and beneficial”. The development of outdoor learning in Scotland has a very important part in realising this vision.

This post was originally written for Children in Scotland Magazine, by Penny Martin, our Outdoor Learning Project Officer. Children in Scotland is a registered charity working to make Scotland a world leader in securing the wellbeing of every child and improving the quality of every childhood. You can find out more about Children in Scotland here , including how to become a member, and you can subscribe to their bimonthly magazine here.

All images ©  Lorne Gill/SNH


Heritage and nature on your doorstep – the new Seven Lochs Wetland Park

Spring is in the air – and with it a change in Scotland’s nature. And this is especially true for the Seven Lochs Wetland Park, where our plans for Scotland’s largest urban heritage and nature park are really starting to take shape. Scott Ferguson, Seven Lochs Project Coordinator, tells us about this exciting new project.

Enjoying a stroll alongside Johnston Loch in Gartcosh. © Becky Duncan Photography

Enjoying a stroll alongside Johnston Loch in Gartcosh.

The Seven Lochs Wetland Park comprises almost 20 sq km of lochs, parks, nature reserves and countryside spanning the Glasgow City and North Lanarkshire boundary between Easterhouse, Coatbridge and Stepps. While the idea of a new, largescale heritage and nature park for this part of the city region isn’t new, it was with the publication of the Seven Lochs Wetland Park Vision and Masterplan in 2014 that the idea really took flight.

Since then the Seven Lochs Partnership* and the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership have been working on detailed plans for the new park, and in July 2016 we were rewarded with the announcement of £4.5million of HLF funding towards a 5-year, £6.8million project to develop the Seven Lochs as a new hub for heritage learning, outdoor recreation and community engagement. With a Seven Lochs staff team now in place we can really get going with change on the ground.

Whooper swans on Hogganfield Loch. © Becky Duncan Photography

Whooper swans on Hogganfield Loch.

When the whooper swans, now leaving Hogganfield Loch for the long flight to Iceland, return in October they’ll notice a few changes. Hogganfield lochs is one of three sites where we’re installing BioHaven floating wetlands to help create almost 500m2 of new wetland habitat and improve water quality, planted with over 2000 wetland plants collected from around Seven Lochs by our hard-working volunteers. We hope these floating wetlands will increase opportunities for breeding birds such as great crested grebe, as well as helping to reduce blue-green algae.

It’s not just the lochs that are changing. As part of our Pearls and Pollinators project we’re looking at how we can increase the diversity of wildflowers in areas of grassland and woodland habitat. Focussing on nectarrich species and butterflyfood plants we’ve developed bespoke wildflower seed mixes for these habitats, and are trialling the use of a ‘wildflower earth’, alongside more traditional methods like seeding and plug planting. We’re also training volunteers in survey and biological recording so that we can monitor the success of habitat enhancement.

Volunteers installing dams at Commonhead Moss LNR.
'Tracks and signs' guided walk at Hogganfield LNR.

Although a distinctly urban park, the Seven Lochs area is home to an amazing array of wildlife. In the last year both osprey and bittern have been seen at Bishop Loch Local Nature Reserve (LNR), and Gartcosh LNR is home to Scotland’s largest population of great crested newt. And we’re only just beginning to understand the unique grassland populations of water vole that have been discovered in parks, gardens and areas of vacant and derelict land across N E Glasgow. These feisty rodents seem to have found a way to survive and thrive away from their usual watery habitat – and Cranhill Park in particular has perhaps the highest density of water vole anywhere in the UK. But their love of derelict sites also puts them at risk from planned new housing, so with support from the SNH Green Infrastructure Fund, we’re planning a network of permanent grassland sites that can be managed specifically for water vole.

There's something to enthrall visitors of all ages at Drumpellier Country Park. © Becky Duncan Photography

There’s something to enthrall visitors of all ages at Drumpellier Country Park.

The Seven Lochs will be a great place for people too. Four visitor gateways are planned for Provan Hall, Drumpellier Country Park, Glenboig Life Centre and Hogganfield Park, and these will be hubs for a range of heritage and nature activities. New visitor facilities and heritage interpretation will reveal the hidden history of people that have lived in the area over many centuries, and the secret lives of the wildlife that calls the park home. A programme of events and activities – to be launched at Easter – will allow people of all ages to discover the nature that thrives in the Park, and offer opportunities for training and volunteering. A network of walking and cycling trails will help visitors explore the area’s wetland treasures.

Working with, and involving, local communities is is vital to making sure that the park becomes both a major visitor attraction and an important community resource. The Seven Lochs Wetland Park is at the start of an amazing journey. It really is heritage and nature on your doorstep – a great place to discover, go wild, get fit, or just relax and enjoy the fresh air. And a place local people can be proud of.

You can find out lots more about the Seven Lochs Wetland Park, and everything that’s going on there, on our website.

* The Seven Lochs Partnership brings together Glasgow City Council, North Lanarkshire Council, Forestry Commission Scotland, The Conservation Volunteers Scotland, Glenboig Community Trust and Scottish Natural Heritage.

All images © Becky Duncan Photography

What goes clatter, clatter, click, click, pop, pop in the woods?

The capercaillie lekking season is upon us. Capercaillie Project Officer, Gareth Marshall gives us an insight into these extraordinary birds.

A clattering in the branches , a capercaillie male comes down to face his opponent in the lek. ©Pete Cairns/2020VISION

A clattering in the branches, a capercaillie male comes down to face his opponent in the lek. ©Pete Cairns/2020VISION

Deep in the pre-dawn darkness of a spring-time pine forest, something is stirring. It’s still too dark to make out any shapes, but above the sound of the wind blowing through the canopy there’s something else: a clattering in the branches, fluttering wingbeats and then…click…click…click.  An eery wheezing, rasping cough punctuated by clicks and pops comes out of the darkness.  More clattering wingbeats.  Click…click…click.  As dawn light eventually starts seeping through the wood the sounds increase, coming from several directions at once. The shapes of the forest begin to emerge from the gloom. The clattering begins again and two dark shapes move toward each other through the heather, tails fanned, chests puffed, necks out-stretched; two male capercaillie square up, the lek has begun.

An adult male capercaillie displaying in a pine forest. ©Mark Hamblin/2020VISION

An adult male capercaillie displaying in a pine forest. ©Mark Hamblin/2020VISION

Capercaillie, the giant grouse of the pinewoods, begin their breeding season at the lek (‘lek’ is an old Norse word that means ‘play’), where the males come together early in the morning at traditional sites to display and fight for their place in the pecking order. This happens throughout the Spring but the females, for whom the display is intended, only attend the lek for a few crucial days in mid to late April.  They perch on a branch with a good view of proceedings until it’s clear who the dominant male is and then fly down to the ground to mate with him.  In capercaillie populations, the dominant male gets to mate with all the females and the subordinates go away with nothing, so if they want to pass on their genes it’s vital that they’re the top dog.  For this reason male capercaillie expend a huge amount of energy during the lek and it’s not uncommon for a few to die from exhaustion or wounds inflicted by their rivals each year.

A female capercaillie. ©Danny Green

A female capercaillie. ©Danny Green

In Scotland, capercaillie numbers declined by about 90% between the 1970s and 1990s and there are now just between 1000 and 2000 birds left. The decline was caused by a combination of factors: changes to the way their forest habitat is managed, increased use of deer fencing (a killer if they fly into it), a changing climate and predation pressure.  On top of all that, in recent years there has been growing evidence that human disturbance is also having a negative impact.  If the lek is disturbed, particularly on one of the few mornings when the hens are there to be mated, there might be no breeding at all.

For this reason capercaillie are legally protected during the breeding season, so unless a licence has been granted by SNH it’s illegal for anyone to disturb them, either intentionally or recklessly, while they’re displaying. Despite making for an incredible wildlife spectacle, we urge the public to act responsibly and not go out looking for lekking capercaillie.

This protection also extends beyond the ‘traditional’ leks and breeding season. Every year a few birds show atypical behaviour such as losing their fear of people, vehicles or dogs. They can attract significant attention as they may seem like an easy and low-risk opportunity to see a capercaillie, but if encountered, the responsible course of action is to withdraw immediately and not share the location. This avoids causing unnecessary stress to a bird that’s already fighting for survival, not to mention disturbing other wildlife nearby.

If you do want a chance of a view of lekking capercaillie without risking disturbance, the RSPB runs Caper Watch at the Loch Garten Osprey Centre throughout April. For more details go the RSPB website.

Gareth Marshall is RSPB’s Capercaillie Project Officer. The project is joint funded by RSPB, Forestry Commission Scotland and Scottish Natural Heritage.

The rights and wrongs of spring

“Winter’s cauldest blasts are aye ahint her wellies”– W.J. Boak.
Battleby’s gardener, Jim Carruthers, struggles between the excitement of the grounds bursting to life with colour and song and the mourning of cosy winter pastimes.

Snowdrops covered in snow. ©Lorne Gill

Snowdrops covered in snow. ©Lorne Gill

Like frosts, the harbingers of spring come in waves to the gardens here at Battleby. They start in mid-February at the start of the snell winds from Russia that protractedly dog the balm of spring right up until Easter. Most folk would choose the iconic snowdrop as their favourite if not sole harbinger. Accompanying these bulletproof flowers here are Mahonia and Pieris, both fine lures for early bumblebees. At the same time woodpeckers start to drum out their territory. First light sounds like a Japanese percussion concert. By the time staff arrive, they have settled to an odd roll with a tardy response. Most striking of all though are the hunners of scarlet elf cups that radiate from deadwood lying between oaks. Oystercatchers used to pierce my dreams at this time but they haven’t appeared for a few years now.

looking out of its nesting hole in an old oak tree, Battleby. ©Lorne Gill/SNH
Scarlet elf cup. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

Next come the early species rhododendron vying with plum blossom for the right to succumb to frost. Unlike humans, both can thole the biting winds. The rooks, having negotiated throughout the winter parliament, start to build their ungainly nests and daffodils will start to bloom on the sunny banking at the bottom of Big Wood.

I’ve spent the morning there attacking the understorey of rhododendron, at least the ones I dislike. Qualification is by their disease or aggression or my vindictiveness. Some of it is the scourge ponticum, originating here from rootstocks used during the wacky Victorian excesses of breeding known as “The Hardy Hybrids”. Early on I caught a beauty – a 2m long layer with an ashet-sized clod of root. I bashed it against a substantial rhodie trunk with gleeful vigour. The dry woodland soil splattered like shot across my face. One moment later, a shower of barely molten frost drenched me.

Bill and Jim at the rhodie bashing, Rookery Wood, Battleby. © Isobel Morrison

Bill and Jim at the rhodie bashing, Rookery Wood, Battleby. © Isobel Morrison

Later I went home for lunch and left the back door open such was the warmth of the sun. Last night’s leftovers, a mug of Darjeeling and a novel set in the swamps of Louisiana. Hardly had I pushed away the plate when in comes a bumblebee and starts feeding on the £1 bunch of British daffodils. I hear the fridge motoring and I know now we’re in the time when fridges are necessary and not an indulgent way to boost your energy consumption. A wave of regret passes over me. It’s just that winter is ending. No more thick soups, dark stews or rich crumbles. The steamy southern state is losing its attraction. In fact the reading season is away to end, whisky corks will go untouched for the close season, nae mair skeins of geese, the roasting of roosters (no no not the birds, the tatties) is over, the hungry gap approaches, oranges have turned to string and, worst of all, pomegranates are peelie-wally and juiceless, as insipid as spring is invigorating and as dull as this weather is contrary.

The bumblebee visits, it seems, every individual in the host, it moves on to the vibrant blue flowers of the indoor campanula (clip after flowering for a second flush) and then flies away to the kitchen window rather than the door. It buzzes with frustration at the unyielding glass and I manage, at some length, to flap it out the window.

Relieved and annoyed in equal measure, I go back to work. After an hour or so of visiting martial arts on some shrubs under the pretext of rejuvenation, I look to see the way the weather is going and try to decide on headgear for the morns. Will it be the full Mongolian with furry flaps or the Australian bush to keep off the U.V. rays that are ridiculously strong the now? I also do need to decide whether it is time to fit the mower onto the tractor or refit the snowplough. Either is possible, neither just as likely. I probably will decide not to decide. After all this now is the time for fudging. There used to be a time my wee John Deere relished; the gap between winter and spring when he was unfettered by the trappings of any part of those attachments. He could go through gaps, cross stumps, not get stuck by rocks or holes. I recognise his missing exhilaration and we mourn together the good old days when seasons were seasons. Winters were proper and springs just aboot predictable.

As Kurtz might have said, the joys the joys.


Great news for golden eagles and the south of Scotland

Karen Rentoul, our Operations Officer in Southern Scotland, and member of the South of Scotland Golden Eagle Project Board, enthuses about good news from the Heritage Lottery Fund.

A golden eagle in flight. ©Laurie Campbell

The spectacular sight of a golden eagle in flight. ©Laurie Campbell

27 March 2017 should go down in history as a good day for nature in south Scotland. At least, it ought to, for the Heritage Lottery Fund has announced a grant of £1.3 million towards boosting the golden eagle population in south Scotland. The small, fragmented population of two to four successful pairs has to benefit from this award.

A uniquely special partnership has formed to make a difference. Scottish Land and Estates and the RSPB have joined forces with Buccleuch Estates, Forestry Commission Scotland, The Langholm Initiative, and SNH to make a real difference for the fortunes of golden eagles. Through hard work to improve the prospects of these iconic birds, and painstaking work with local communities to develop exciting initiatives to benefit both, we are on the threshold of one of the most exciting conservation programmes this decade in Scotland.

An example of productive habitat for foraging golden eagles in south Scotland, the Black Hope valley, Moffatdale. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

Examples of productive habitat for foraging golden eagles in south Scotland, the Black Hope valley, Moffatdale. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

An example of productive habitat for foraging golden eagles in south Scotland, the Grey Mare's Tail. ©P&A Angus Macdonald/SNH

The Grey Mare’s Tail. ©P&A Macdonald/SNH

One of the key Scottish Biodiversity 2020 Challenge projects, this ground-breaking initiative paves the way for a massive impetus for nature in south Scotland. Working with local communities, schools, members of the Scottish Raptor Study Group, a wide range of land managers, and the tourism sector, we have a great opportunity to place golden eagles at the heart of economic rejuvenation in some of the more hard pressed parts of Scotland. And if we can bring benefits for these birds, we should bring wider gains for other wildlife so dependent on the upland and woodland haunts of this marvellous part of Scotland.

Think of this – with good fortune and the rallying support of organisations and people committed to making a success of Scotland’s nature – we can make a difference. For many thousands of people, a sojourn in the uplands of Galloway, the Borders or even closer to the Central Belt, may soon be rewarded with the sight of golden eagles.

Sparkling eyes, frenetic texts, excited blogs and cries of delight may soon be the hallmark of a trip to these parts. What more could you ask for, and return trips should be rewarded with even greater treats.

Let’s celebrate some good news, and wish golden eagles and all who are rooting for them the very best of good fortune. Ambition, fortitude, trust and good luck should see us succeed in this endeavour.

You can find out more about the South of Scotland Golden Eagle Project here.


Play for Scotland this weekend and take care of your trails

Mountain bikers from all over Europe will be out in force volunteering their time to take care of their trails this weekend, Saturday 1 & Sunday 2 April. The driving force behind this international competition is Graeme McLean, project manager of Developing Mountain Biking in Scotland (DMBinS), a partnership project which SNH is pleased to support. Graeme is co-ordinating the Scottish groups over the weekend and he would love to have you as part of the Scotland team.  Graeme explains how the idea for this friendly battle came to him.

DMBIS TCOYT Trev Worsey Punchy-3437

On a cold, wet and wild winter Sunday in April 2014, I took my two children to the beach to take part in a ‘Surfers Against Sewage’ spring beach clean. It was a great day and the kids and I all loved playing our part in cleaning our beaches and getting blasted by fresh North Sea air.

I had a thought – if this works for surfing (& with over 7000 volunteers it is!) why couldn’t it work for mountain biking? In 2015 we started Take Care of Your Trails weekend – it was a success – and it grew in 2016 with 18 trail crews and 154 volunteers taking part in the weekend.

Graeme's kids

I was then asked to present at the International Mountain Biking Association (IMBA) Europe Summit in Germany last Easter, where I talked about our weekend of co-ordinated trail repair sessions.

People were enthusiastic about the idea and we followed this up by hosting a Scotland stand at the world’s largest bike show, EuroBike – also in Germany. Then, at an international conference we ran in November, we decided to go ahead and expand the weekend to include groups from across Europe.

DMBIS TCOYT Trev Worsey Punchy-3647.jpg

So, in 2017 we are delighted to announce that Take Care of Your Trails will be a Europe-wide friendly competition to find out who has the best mountain bike community! Trail repair groups from Scotland to Poland, Denmark to Czech Republic and Sweden to Spain will engage in a friendly competition. The winners will be the country that can get the most volunteers to help repair trails, per head of population. The winning country will be presented with a prize at the IMBA Europe 2017 Summit in Agueda, Portugal.

DMBIS TCOYT Trev Worsey Punchy-3939

Scotland has some of the best mountain biking trail provision in the world and those who spend time on these trails are keen to ensure that it stays that way. Scotland is in with a great chance of winning with 13 dedicated groups spread across the country. We are anticipating nearly 200 volunteers to take part and this could be enough to win us the award.

We are also delighted that the Scottish mountain bike business community is getting behind the weekend and we have a range amazing prizes – including event entry, helmets, fork servicing, shorts and more – which will be randomly selected and given to volunteers who take part in the weekend.

DMBIS TCOYT Trev Worsey Punchy-3695

Volunteers considering taking part in the event do not need any prior experience as there will be a range of tasks to suit everyone who volunteers, no matter how young or old.
It is a win, win, win scenario – you get the opportunity to win prizes; Scotland wins the ‘Best MTB Community in Europe’; and the trails we love get improved and better to ride – a great combination.

If you, alone or with friends and family, would like to join the Scotland team, you can find out how to get involved here. We look forward to seeing you out on the trails this weekend – let the friendly battle commence!

You can find out more about the DMBinS project on our website.


Seagulls and seafish

Like them or loathe them, seagulls are a key part of our nature in Scotland. Many have made their home in our towns and cities and as opportunistic scavengers they can eke out a living thanks (largely) to us.

Herring gull. ©Lorne Gill

Herring gull. ©Lorne Gill

But, I’m not writing about these town gulls, nope, this is all about the wild, free-flying, free-living gulls battling for survival on the Island of Canna. If you don’t know where it is, Canna is one of the Small Isles, just south of Skye and just west of Rum.

Sea cliffs on Canna. © Simon Foster

Sea cliffs on Canna. © Simon Foster

Herring gull chicks. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

Herring gull chicks. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

For the last 48 years, seabirds have been studied on this island. This makes it one of the longest running seabird studies in Europe and I’ve been part of the small team of dedicated volunteers who annually look at the changing fortunes of Canna’s seabirds. Over the years, we’ve counted the numbers of gulls nesting and when we started to look at the results we noticed a very steep decline. From 2001 to 2005 numbers plummeted from around 1,300 birds around 100. So we began to wonder why have they declined. What possible reason could cause such a steep decline?

herring gull numbers graph

As a kid I remember helping to count the gulls on Canna and looking at what the chicks were been fed, mostly it was whitefish and other items that had probably been scavenged from fishing boats. So was the answer to the question to do with fishing? We went back through the fish landing records for the nearby port of Mallaig and the results were astonishing … (well to us anyway!).


Graph to show fish landed in Mallaig.

Graph showing the decline in numbers of fish landed in Mallaig. Pelagic fish are those that typically feed close to the surface (e.g. mackerel) and Demersal are those that typically feed lower down towards the seabed (e.g. cod).

It appears that the changes in gull numbers were closely linked to changes in fish landings. When we looked at information from the 1930s the numbers of gulls nesting on Canna was very similar to the latest numbers. So although we talk about a decline, what we may be seeing on Canna is gull numbers returning to more normal, albeit lower levels. There is still much to learn about seabirds and long-term studies like those on Canna continue to be of immense value in adding to our knowledge.

If you’re interested in reading more about the work the paper is available from Taylor and Francis online.

Simon Foster is our Trends and Indicators Analyst.