• Compares activities consisting of a single sequence of steps with those consisting of multiple parallel steps, for example, making tomato sauce and cooking pasta to be served at the same time. • Identifies algorithms/instructions that include repeated groups of instructions a fixed number of times and/or loops until a condition is met. • Identifies when a process is not predictable because it has a random element for example, a board game which uses dice. • Structures related items of information for example, a family tree (MNU 2- 20b). • Uses a recognised set of instructions/ an algorithm to sort real world objects for example, books in a library or trading cards. SECOND LEVEL TECHNOLOGIES Experiences and Outcomes Benchmarks Organiser – Computing Science Understanding the world through computational thinking I understand the operation of a process and its outcome. I can structure related items of information. TCH 2-13a Links to: Numeracy & Maths – Number, Money & Measure – Patterns & Relationships MTH 2-13a, Information Handling – Data & Analysis MTH 2-20a & MTH 2-21a

Progression

I can/am able to I can/am able to I can/am able to
Take part in activities which involve breaking down a familiar process into a sequence of steps e.g. make a sandwich, journey to school. Plan & carry out a single sequence of steps for a familiar process in various contexts e.g. recipe, story, direction, drawing task, listening skills task. Take part in activities which involve comparing single sequences of steps which run alongside each other – are multiple parallel steps, e.g. dancing & playground games.
With support, record the sequence of steps e.g pictorial, written instructions, basic flow diagram. Record the sequence of steps e.g. pictorial, written instructions, basic flow diagram. Record examples of multiple processes which happen at the same time e.g. pictorial, written instructions, basic flow diagram.

Identify a loop that repeats until a condition is met e.g. roll the dice until you get a 6 to start a game

Identify familiar routines & sequences of instructions – algorithms e.g. lines, cloakroom, into class, deal with bags, dinners, etc & when they are repeated. Identify further routines & sequences of algorithms & when they are repeated a fixed number of times – a loop. e.g. Scottish country dance Identify when a process is not predictable because there is a random element e.g. a board game which uses dice.
Describe the outcomes of an observed process e.g. mixing paint colours Predict the outcome of a given process such as rock, paper, scissors – win, lose or draw e.g. If’ statement. Independently make decisions about how to arrange & structure related items of information e.g. build a family tree.
Use and follow a range of diagrams & process which arrange related items of information With support, make decisions about how to arrange & structure related items of information e.g. flow diagrams for making lunch choices. Identify & demonstrate algorithms which are useful in everyday life e.g. Library books, filing systems
Explore & use systems used in school to sort real-life objects e.g. resources in classroom. Explore & use more sophisticated ways in which information is sorted & stored e.g. Trading cards

“When learning about Computational Thinking learners might:

* Identify when and where parallel processes occur; such as in Pacman: learners can identify two parallel algorithms, explaining what the Ghosts’ role in the game is vs Pacman’s role. An unplugged context for this learning might be learners explaining the different parallel roles in a game of rounders to younger peers: one team has instructions for batting while the other has rules for fielding but both play at the same time

* Use the language of patterns and abstraction to identify when repeated instructions can be grouped into a loop, such as when describing dance steps: for example the Slosh or Macarena, and instead of [ahead 2, turn90, ahead 2, turn90, ahead2, turn 90, ahead2, turn 90] we could use [ahead2, turn 90, repeat 3 times]

* Analyse a set of conditional instructions, for example, what conditions cause the player to win or lose in a game of Draughts, for example: if you lose all your pieces then the game is lost but if you take all the opponents’ pieces then you win. With this understanding, they will then design a board game that must contain a random element, such as: a roll of a dice or draw of a card. Learners will be able to ensure that the game is still playable and fair, for example: rolling a 1 will lose points, or send you back but does not immediately eliminate you from the game, or in Snakes and Ladders, having more ladders than snakes so that the game is easier to win

* Locate specific books when they visit the community library by making use of genres and sub genres to locate fiction, and the Dewey Decimal System to locate and categorise non-fiction

* Make informed decisions based on the information available when organising an entrepreneurial activity, such as Make £5 Grow. They can weigh up their options and make logical decisions, such as: should we sell lots of small-profit items such as rubbers and pencils, or big-profit items such as t-shirts and cakes? Learners will be able to justify their decisions in their ‘business plan’ while acknowledging that there are many ways to make profits

* Collect and organise information in a hierarchical structure, and order data within this, such as when sorting sweets: is it chocolate or chewy? Is it more or less than 30g? Or book reviews could be sorted by genre, length or if it contains pictures?

* Create a collection of information, such as different animals and their scientific classifications. This data could be presented in Venn or Carroll diagrams before being made into Top Trump-style cards. The next step for learners will be to create a digital version of their Top Trumps game using a database or non-linear presentation and categorising the living things in a way that they can be searched, sorted and organised

* Use effective questions to make decisions to organise most effectively or make recommendations to meet a requirement, so is instead of asking “Would you like ham on your sandwich? Would you like cheese? Would
you like peanut butter? Would you like chicken?” they would ask “What would you like on you sandwich?”

* Analyse a set of more complex instructions, such as a baking recipe to make scones, and ensure the steps are in a logical order. Check steps, carry out processes and evaluate processes they carry out. They will then identify where they have made errors or could improve their outcome, such as with scones, by doing things differently next time”